Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 89, Issue 2, pp 562–570 | Cite as

Synthesis of N-F-codoped TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites as a visible and sunlight response photocatalyst for simultaneous degradation of organic water pollutants and reduction of Cr (VI)

  • Sina Ghanbari
  • Mohammad Hadi GivianradEmail author
  • Parviz Aberoomand Azar
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for catalytic, photoelectrochemical and sensor applications


A new N-F-codoped TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by simple sol-gel method, and strongly stabilized on a substrate used in a fabricated photoreactor. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV/Vis, photoluminescence, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscope, and N2 adsorption/desorption methods. The effective parameters of pH, flow rate of the incoming current, and the photoreactor tubes angle against sunlight were optimized. The photocatalytic performance of prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by studying the simultaneous removal of a mixture containing three azo dyes and Cr (VI) in the fabricated continuous-flow photoreactor under visible and solar irradiation. The performance of the designed system was also proved under various outdoor climate conditions. Total organic carbon and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis were performed on the treated sample to confirm the decontamination of the model pollutant mixture. It was found that doping N and F in TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles caused least agglomeration, enhanced activity under visible and solar irradiation, and fully anatase crystalline structure in the as-synthesized nanoparticles.


  • N-F-codoped TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using a simple sol-gel process.

  • The nanocomposites were stabilized on the glass beads’ surface by coupling two coating methods.

  • A photoreactor with adjustable effective parameters was fabricated.

  • The photoremovals were successfully tested on a mixture of some organic and inorganic pollutants.

  • Different outdoor climate conditions were efficaciously investigated.


N-F-codoped Reduction of Cr (VI) Organic water pollutants Photocatalysis Titanium dioxide 



We gratefully appreciate the hard work of the staff of Razi Lab Complex of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sina Ghanbari
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hadi Givianrad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Parviz Aberoomand Azar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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