Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 87, Issue 3, pp 713–724 | Cite as

Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) coatings on β‒type titanium alloys reinforced with rutile-TiO2 compounds: adhesion resistance and in-vitro corrosion

  • Burak DikiciEmail author
  • Mitsuo Niinomi
  • Mehmet Topuz
  • Serap Gungor Koc
  • Masaaki Nakai
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials with surface modification for applications


In this study, β type Ti‒29Nb‒13Ta‒4.6Zr alloys coated with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) reinforced with rutile-TiO2 compounds by sol-gel technique to evaluate its possible usage in biomaterial science. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2∙4H2O), di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4)2HPO4), ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), and titanium (IV) propoxide (Ti(OC3H7)4) (Merck, Germany) were used as precursors for producing the BCP-only and BCP/TiO2 composite coatings. Synthesis and coating procedure, surface morphology, adhesion strength, and corrosion results of the coated samples have been investigated in details. XRD technique has been used in order to characterization of BCP phases. The morphological observations of coatings were determined by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro corrosion behaviors of the coatings have been determined with polarization method in Ringer’s electrolyte at body temperature. It was found that the BCP/TiO2 coating synthesized on TNTZ alloy has higher scratch resistance than BCP-only coating due to its containing rutile-TiO2 compounds. In addition, it can be said that the BCP/TiO2 coated sample was less susceptibility to corrosion than the BCP-only coatings and uncoated TNTZ sample in simulated body fluid.


  • A new method has been proposed for production of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP).

  • The phase has been coated on the β type Ti‒29 Nb‒13Ta‒4.6Zr (TNTZ) alloys by sol-gel.

  • The coating has higher adhesion resistance if the BCP phase contains TiO2 compounds.

  • In-vitro resistances of the coatings were found higher than uncoated TNTZ alloy.


Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) TNTZ Sol-gel Sintering Scratch In-vitro corrosion 



This work was financially supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific & Technological Research Council of Turkey) under 114M437 project number.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Institute for Materials ResearchTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Materials and Manufacturing ScienceOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMeijo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  5. 5.Institute of Materials and Systems for SustainabilityNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Mechanical EngineeringYuzuncu Yil UniversityVanTurkey
  7. 7.Science and Engineering, Mechanical EngineeringKindai UniversityOsakaJapan

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