Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 82, Issue 1, pp 85–91 | Cite as

Synthesis of δ-MnO2 with nanoflower-like architecture by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

  • Li Wang
  • Wenle Ma
  • Yanhong Li
  • Hongtao Cui
Original Paper: Nano-structured materials (particles, fibers, colloids, composites, etc.)


By a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, nanoflower-like δ-MnO2 was prepared for application in supercapacitors as electrode material. The characterization results indicated that the obtained architecture had the characteristics of electrode materials with high electrochemical performance. The flower architecture provided the channel surrounded by the nanosheets-like petals for the fast transfer of electrolyte ions. The thin thickness of nanosheets minimized the diffusion distance of electrolyte ions beneath the surface of material particles. The two advantages of the material guaranteed the high performance of material. It presented specific capacitance of 328 F g−1 at 5 mV s−1 in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution within a wide potential window of −0.5~1.0 V. During cycle stability test, the capacitance of material still remained 89% of its initial value after 5000 charge–discharge cycles. These results demonstrated that the nanoflower-like δ-MnO2 could be applied as high performance electrode material.

Graphical Abstract

MnO2 with different crystallographic forms and architectures was prepared by normal hydrothermal and microwave-assisted hydrothermal methods, respectively. The α-MnO2 prepared by normal hydrothermal method presented architecture of nanobundles and the δ-MnO2 prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method exhibited architecture of nanoflower. The results of electrochemical measurements indicated that δ-MnO2 had the higher performance than α-MnO2 due to its unique nanoflower architecture. Open image in new window


δ-MnO2 Nanoflower Microwave-assisted hydrothermal method Supercapacitor 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringYantai UniversityYantaiChina

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