Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 81, Issue 1, pp 3–10 | Cite as

Solvothermal synthesis of indium-doped zinc oxide TCO films

Original Paper: Functional coatings, thin films and membranes (including deposition techniques)


This paper outlines the preparation of indium-doped zinc oxide films via solvothermal synthesis of nanoparticles, followed by spin coating of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer. The effect of stabilizer type and its concentration on the suspension stability was studied. The influence of the In/Zn molar ratio (in the 0–0.06 range) on the lattice parameters and the cell volume was determined by XRD analysis. A linear change in these parameters was found, indicating a uniform integration of the indium into the ZnO crystal. Thermal analysis using TGA/DTA pointed to the optimal thermal treatment of the TCO layers at 500 °C. In addition, the effect of the molar ratio on the optical and electrical properties was studied. A minimal sheet resistance of <46 ohm/square and optical transparency of >85 % at In/Zn = 0.04 were achieved. The above findings indicate that the solvothermal route can be very effective in the synthesis of state-of-the-art TCO coatings.

Graphical Abstract


Transparent conductive oxide Indium-doped zinc oxide Solvothermal synthesis Nanoparticles Thin films 



The authors acknowledge the generous support of the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP), the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust and the Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute (RBNI). GES acknowledges the Committee for Planning and Budgeting of the Council for Higher Education under the framework of the KAMEA program. GSG also acknowledges support from the Gruenbaum chair in Materials Engineering.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentTechnionHaifaIsrael

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