Advertisement

Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 233–240 | Cite as

Electrochemical deposition of silica sol–gel films on stainless steel: preliminary analysis of key variables

  • Gianmarco Giordano
  • Christian Durante
  • Armando Gennaro
  • Massimo Guglielmi
Original Paper

Abstract

The sol–gel electrodeposition of coatings on conductive substrates has been presented the first time in 1999, and since then, a significant number of papers have been published, mainly devoted to explore the possibilities of application. However, a clear and complete picture of the fundamental aspects and of the role of the many parameters involved is still lacking. In this work, which is intended to be a preliminary approach to a systematic study, the effect of potential and time on the coating thickness was studied, trying to analyze the different factors that make experimentation difficult, looking for possible solutions and putting the basis for a more complete and analytic investigation. Simple tetraethyl orthosilicate-based acidic solutions were used to coat planar stainless steel samples. Different starting solutions were tested, varying the amount of precursor, water and hydrochloric acid. The role of working temperature, oxygen concentration and the presence of potassium nitrate until saturation was tested. Morphology, thickness, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the coatings and to monitor the current in function of potential and time. The thickness was found to increase with both the concentration of the solution and the HCl/TEOS ratio. Temperature was found to be an important factor, but also the amount of oxygen and electrolyte (KNO3) in solution seems to influence the thickness of coatings.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Electrodeposition Thin film Silica Sol–gel 

References

  1. 1.
    Shacham R, Avnir D, Mandler D (1999) Electrodeposition of methylated sol–gel films on conducting surfaces. Adv Mater 11(5):384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shacham R, Mandler D, Avnir D (2004) Electrochemically induced sol–gel deposition of zirconia thin films. Chemistry 10(8):1936–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shacham R, Avnir D, Mandler D (2004) Electrodeposition of dye-doped titania thin films. J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 31(1–3):329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Toledano R, Shacham R (2008) Electrochemical co-deposition of sol–gel/metal thin nanocomposite films. Chem Mater 20(13):4276–4283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Toledano R, Mandler D (2010) Electrochemical codeposition of thin gold nanoparticles/sol–gel nanocomposite films. Chem Mater 22(13):3943–3951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Farghaly AA, Collinson MM (2014) Electroassisted codeposition of sol–gel derived silica nanocomposite directs the fabrication of coral-like nanostructured porous gold. Langmuir 30(18):5276–5286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sheffer M, Groysman A, Mandler D (2003) Electrodeposition of sol–gel films on Al for corrosion protection. Corros Sci 45(12):2893–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sheffer M, Groysman A, Starosvetsky D, Savchenko N, Mandler D (2004) Anion embedded sol–gel films on Al for corrosion protection. Corros Sci 46(12):2975–2985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu J-M, Liu L, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N (2006) Effects of electrodeposition potential on the corrosion properties of bis-1,2-[triethoxysilyl] ethane films on aluminum alloy. Electrochim Acta 51(19):3944–3949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu L, Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N (2006) Improving the formation and protective properties of silane films by the combined use of electrodeposition and nanoparticles incorporation. Electrochim Acta 52(2):538–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li M, Yang Y-Q, Liu L, Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q (2010) Electro-assisted preparation of dodecyltrimethoxysilane/TiO2 composite films for corrosion protection of AA2024-T3 (aluminum alloy). Electrochim Acta 55(8):3008–3014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu L-K, Liu L, Li J, Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N (2010) Electrodeposition of cerium (III)-modified bis-[triethoxysilypropyl]tetra-sulphide films on AA2024-T3 (aluminum alloy) for corrosion protection. Surf Coat Technol 204(23):3920–3926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu L-K, Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q (2012) Electrodeposition of zinc-doped silane films for corrosion protection of mild steels. Corros Sci 59:348–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang L-L, Wu L-K, Hu J-M, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N (2012) Electrodeposition of protective organosilane films from a thin layer of precursor solution. Corros Sci 60:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu L-K, Zhang X-F, Hu J-M (2014) Corrosion protection of mild steel by one-step electrodeposition of superhydrophobic silica film. Corros Sci 85:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hu J-M, Liu L, Zhang J-Q, Cao C-N (2007) Electrodeposition of silane films on aluminum alloys for corrosion protection. Prog Org Coat 58(4):265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collinson M, Moore N, Deepa P, Kanungo M (2003) Electrodeposition of porous silicate films from ludox colloidal silica. Langmuir 16:7669–7672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maghear A, Etienne M, Tertiş M, Săndulescu R, Walcarius A (2013) Clay-mesoporous silica composite films generated by electro-assisted self-assembly. Electrochim Acta 112:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walcarius A, Sibottier E, Etienne M, Ghanbaja J (2007) Electrochemically assisted self-assembly of mesoporous silica thin films. Nat Mater 6(8):602–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herzog G, Sibottier E, Etienne M, Walcarius A (2013) Electrochemically assisted self-assembly of ordered and functionalized mesoporous silica films: impact of the electrode geometry and size on film formation and properties. Faraday Discuss 164:259–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu L, Toledano R, Danieli T, Zhang J-Q, Hu J-M, Mandler D (2011) Electrochemically patterning sol–gel structures on conducting and insulating surfaces. Chem Commun (Camb) 47(24):6909–6911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Deepa P, Kanungo M, Claycomb G, Sherwood PMA, Collinson MM (2003) Electrochemically deposited sol–gel-derived silicate films as a viable alternative in thin-film design. Anal Chem 75:5399–5405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vegliò F (1995) La programmazione della sperimentazione nello sviluppo dei processi chimici. Ratio Math. 9:37–53Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leventis N, Chen M (1997) Electrochemically assisted sol–gel process for the synthesis of polysiloxane films incorporating phenothiazine dyes analogous to methylene blue. Structure and ion-transport properties of the films via spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization. Chem Mater 9:2621–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lyons MEG (1994) Electroactive polymer electrochemistry. Part 1: fundamentals. Springer US, Boston, 487Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mendoza-Huizar LH, Robles J, Palomar-Pardavé M (2003) Nucleation and growth of cobalt onto different substrates Part II. The upd-opd transition onto a gold electrode. J Electroanal Chem 545:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Okner R, Favaro G, Radko A, Domb AJ, Mandler D (2010) Electrochemical codeposition of sol–gel films on stainless steel: controlling the chemical and physical coating properties of biomedical implants. Phys Chem Chem Phys 12(46):15265–15273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brinker CJ, Scherer GW (1990) sol–gel science: the physics and chemistry of sol–gel processing. Academic Press Inc, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Collinson MM, Higgins DA, Kommidi R, Campbell-Rance D (2008) Electrodeposited silicate films: importance of supporting electrolyte. Anal Chem 80:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ding S, Liu L, Hu J, Zhang J, Cao C (2008) Nitrate ions as cathodic alkalization promoters for electro-assisted deposition of sol–gel thin films. Scr Mater 59:297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianmarco Giordano
    • 1
  • Christian Durante
    • 2
  • Armando Gennaro
    • 2
  • Massimo Guglielmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartmento di Ingegneria IndustrialeUniversità di PadovaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze ChimicheUniversità di PadovaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations