The electrical properties of chemically obtained barium titanate improved by attrition milling
Barium titanate ceramics were prepared using the nanopowder resulting from a polymeric precursor method, a type of modified Pechini process. The obtained nanopowder was observed to agglomerate and in order to de-agglomerate the powder and enhance the properties of the barium titanate the material was attrition milled. The impact of this attrition milling on the electrical properties of the barium titanate was analysed. The temperature dependence of the relative dielectric permittivity showed three structural phase transitions that are characteristic for ferroelectric barium titanate ceramics. The relative dielectric permittivity at the Curie temperature was higher for the attrition-treated sample than for the non-treated barium titanate. The dielectric losses were below 0.04 in both barium titanate ceramics. The grain and grain-boundary contributions to the total resistivity were observed using impedance analyses for both ceramics. A well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis loop and piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 150 pC/N were obtained for the ceramics prepared from the de-agglomerated powder. In this way we were able to demonstrate that by attrition milling of chemically obtained powders the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics could be enhanced.
KeywordsBarium titanate Agglomeration Dielectric properties Ferroelectric properties Piezoelectric properties
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia for the financial support of this work (projects III45021) and the COST MP0904 Action SIMUFER: “Single- and multiphase ferroics and multiferroics with restricted geometries”. Special thanks to Dr Paul Bowen from EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland for generous research support. Technical support by David Žehelj from JSI is gratefully acknowledged. H. Uršič thanks the Slovenian Research Agency for the financial support in the frame of programs Electronic Ceramics, Nano-, 2D and 3D Structures (P2-0105).
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