Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 267–275 | Cite as

Preparation and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films with Ni nanoparticles

  • E. Ramírez-Meneses
  • A. García-MurilloEmail author
  • F. de J. Carrillo-Romo
  • R. García-Alamilla
  • P. Del Angel-Vicente
  • J. Ramírez-Salgado
  • P. Bartolo Pérez
Original Paper


Titania thin films were synthesized by sol–gel dip-coating method with metallic Ni nanoparticles synthesized separately from an organometallic precursor Ni(COD)2 (COD = cycloocta-1,5-diene) in presence of 1,3-diaminopropane as a stabilizer. Titania was obtained from a titanium isopropoxide precursor solution in presence of acetic acid. A Ni/TiO2 sol system was used to coat glass substrate spheres (6, 4 and 3 mm diameter sizes), and further heat treatment at 400 °C was carried out to promote the crystallization of titania. XRD analysis of the TiO2 films revealed the crystallization of the anatase phase. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution TEM studies of Ni nanoparticles before mixing with the TiO2 solution revealed the formation of Ni nanostructures with an average size of 5–10 nm. High-angle annular dark-field images of the Ni/TiO2 system revealed well-dispersed Ni nanoparticles supported on TiO2 and confirmed by AFM analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the Ni/TiO2 films was evaluated in hydrogen evolution from the decomposition of ethanol using a mercury lamp for UV light irradiation. Titania films in presence of Ni nanoparticles show higher efficiency in their photocatalytic properties in comparison with TiO2.


Sol–gel Thin films Nickel Nanoparticles Organometallic 



This work was supported by CONACyT 47279, 59408 and 59921 Projects. The authors thank Hector Dorantes Rosales (ESIQIE-IPN) for TEM analysis, V. Montiel Palma (CIQ-UAEM) and Benito Barrera Garcia for their support on the experimental work. The authors would like to thank David Nentwick for his editing work on this paper. The authors would also like to thank M. García Murillo for her assistance.


  1. 1.
    He C, Yu Y, Hu X, Larbot A (2002) Appl Surf Sci 200:239–247CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abe R, Sayama K, Arakawa H (2003) Chem Phys Lett 371:360–364CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O’Regan B, Gratzel M (1991) Nature 353:737–740CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Linsebigler AL, Lu G, Yates JT (1995) Chem Rev 95:735–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Irmak S, Kusvuran E, Erbatur O (2004) Appl Catal B Environ 54:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lewandowski M, Ollis DF (2003) J Catal 217:38–46Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fujishima A, Honda K (1972) Nature 238:37–38PubMedCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujishima A, Rao TN, Tryk DA (2000) J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 1:21Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li GH, Yang L, Jin YX, Zhang LD (2000) Thin Solid Films 368:164–167CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castillo S, Lopez T (1998) Appl Catal B Environ 15:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arabatzis IM, Stergiopoulos T, Bernard MC, Labou D, Neophytides SG, Falaras P (2003) Appl Catal B Environ 42:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yoshinaga M, Takahashi H, Yamamoto K, Muramatsu A, Morikawa T (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 309:149–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bastl Z, Franc J, Janda P, Pelouchová H, Samec Z (2006) Nanotechnology 17:1492–1500CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang J, Zhang H, Ge J, Li Y (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:807–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Radu G, Memmert U, Zhang H, Nicolay G, Reinert F, Hartmann U (2002) J Phys Chem B 106:10301–10305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pillet M, Jourdain V, Poncharal P, Sauvajol J-L, Zahab A (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:17112–17118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takahashi H, Sunagawa Y, Myagmarjav S, Yamamoto K, Sato N, Muramatsu A (2003) Mater Trans 44:2414–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myagmarjav S, Takahashi H, Sunagawa Y, Yamamoto K, Sato N, Matsubara E, Muramatsu A (2004) Mater Trans 45:2035–2038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Takahashi H, Sunagawa Y, Myagmarjav S, Muramatsu A (2005) Catal Surv Jpn 9:187–192Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paillet M, Jourdain V, Poncharal P, Sauvajol J-L, Zahab A (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:17112–17118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yu Hua, Li Xin-Jun, Zheng Shao-Jian, Xu Wei (2006) Mater Chem Phys 97:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang X, Liu Q (2008) Appl Surf Sci 254:4780–4785CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cordente N, Respaud M, Senocq F, Casonove MJ, Amiens C, Chaudret B (2001) Nano Lett 1:565–568CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Domínguez-Crespo MA, Ramírez-Meneses E, Montiel-Palma V, Torres Huerta AM, Dorantes Rosales H (2009) Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:1664–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bahtat A, Bouazaoui M, Bahtat M, Garapon C, Jacquier B (1996) Mugnier J. J Non-Cryst Solids 202:16–22CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Medina-Valtierra Jorge, Frausto-Reyes Claudio, Ramírez-Ortíz Jorge, Moctezuma Edgar, Ruiz Facundo (2007) Appl Catal B 76:264–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chang CC, Chen JY, Hsu TL, Lin CK, Chan CC (2008) Thin Solid Films 516:1743CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tseng H-H, Wei M-C, Hsiung S-F, Chiou C-W (2009) Chem Eng J 150:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kosaku K (1988) J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 46:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tam PL, Nybord L (2009) Surf Coat Technol 203:2886–2890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yu GH, Zhu FW, Chai CL (2003) Appl Phys A 76:45–47CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oswald S, Brückner W (2004) Surf Interface Anal 36:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhu J, Chen F, Zhan J, Chen H, Anpo M (2005) J Photochem Photobiol A 180:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu B, Wen L, Zhao X (2008) Mater Sol Cells 92:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Huang LK, Chih-Yin K, Chun-HSuan L, Jiunn-Hsing C, Lin Chiu-Hsun (2007) Catal Lett 113:1–2CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Ramírez-Meneses
    • 1
  • A. García-Murillo
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. de J. Carrillo-Romo
    • 1
  • R. García-Alamilla
    • 3
  • P. Del Angel-Vicente
    • 2
  • J. Ramírez-Salgado
    • 2
  • P. Bartolo Pérez
    • 4
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada-IPN Unidad AltamiraAltamiraMexico
  2. 2.Programa de Ingeniería Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del PetróleoMexicoMexico
  3. 3.Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad MaderoMaderoMexico
  4. 4.Departamento de Física AplicadaCINVESTAV-IPNMéridaMexico

Personalised recommendations