Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 48, Issue 1–2, pp 231–238 | Cite as

Fractal structure in natural gels: effect on carbon sequestration in volcanic soils

  • T. Chevallier
  • T. Woignier
  • J. Toucet
  • E. Blanchart
  • P. Dieudonné
Original Paper

Abstract

Allophanic soils are interesting in terms of environmental properties especially because of their potentialities as sinks for “greenhouse gases” by the way of C sequestration. These volcanic soils contain amorphous clays (allophanes) and exhibit higher organic carbon content than the one measured in other clay soils. We measured the C content of a set of allophanic soils and showed that the C content is positively correlated to the allophane content. We also measured the part of organic matter transformed into CO2 during a respiration experiment and showed that the decomposition is lowered as the soils allophane content increases. Allophane aggregates are very close to the synthetic gels: high specific surface area large pore volume, fractal structure, large water content and important irreversible shrinkage during drying. In this work we characterized by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) the fractal structure of the allophane aggregates at the nano scale. We hypothesized that the peculiar structure and the associated low accessibility of the allophanic soils could explain the high organic carbon content and the associated poor transformation into CO2. The tortuous structure of the allophane aggregates plays the role of a labyrinth which fix and traps soil organic carbon.

Keywords

Natural gel Allophane Fractal materials C sequestration Permeability Diffusion coefficient 

References

  1. 1.
    Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006) Nature 440(9):165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feller C, Beare MH (1997) Geoderma 79:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schimel DS (1995) Glob Chang Biol 1:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trumbore S (2006) Glob Chang Biol 12:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Batjes NH (1996) Eur J Soil Sci 47:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feller C, Albrecht A, Blanchart E, Cabidoche YM, Chevallier T, Hartmann C, Eschenbrenner V, Larre-Larrouy MC, Ndandou JF (2001) Nutr Cycle Agroecosyst 61:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wada KJ (ed) (1985) The distinctive properties of Andosol. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Basile-Doelsch I, Amundson R, Stone WEE, Masiello CA, Bottero J (2005) Eur J Soil Sci 56:689Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boudot JP, Hadj BAB, Chrone T (1986) Soil Biol Biochem 8:457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Basile-Doelsch I, Amundson R, Stone WE, Borschneck D, Bottero JY, Moustier S (2007) Geoderma 137:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Poulenard I, Bartolli F, Burti G (2002) Eur J Soil Sci 53:563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gray CW, Allbrook R (2002) Geoderma 108:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dorel M, Roger-Estrade J, Manichon H, Delvaux B (2000) Soils Use Manag 16:133Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Woignier T, Braudeau E, Doumenc H, Rangon L (2005) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 36:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woignier T, Pochet G, Duffours L, Dieudonné P (2007) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 41:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schaeffer W, Keefer KD (1986) Phys Rev Lett 56:2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vacher R, Woignier T, Pelous J, Courtens E (1988) Phys Rev B 37:6500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Emmerling A, Fricke J (1992) J Non-Cryst Solids 145:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dietler G, Aubert C, Cannell DS, Wiltzius LP (1986) Phys Rev Lett 57:3117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayer L, Schick M, Hardy LL, Wagai KR, McCarthy J (2004) Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:3863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang Y, Dalal WJ, Moody PW, Smith CJ (2003) Soil Biol Biochem 35:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mizota C, Van Reewijk LP (1989) Soil monograph No. 2, International Soil Reference and Information Center, Wageningen, p 185Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chevallier T, Blanchart E, Albrecht A, Feller C, Bernoux M (2006) Can J Soil Sci 86:779Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Braudeau E, Costantini JM, Bellier G, Colleuille H (1999) Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:525Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brinker JF, Scherer GW (1990) Sol–gel science. Academic Press Inc, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yasuhisa Y, Karube K (1999) Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 43:151Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gustafsson JP, Bhattacharya PJ, Blain C, Fraser AR, MacHardy WJ (1995) Geoderma 66:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Quantin P, Balesdent J, Bouleau A, Delaune M, Feller C (1991) Geoderma 50:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dubroeucq D, Geissert D, Quantin P (1998) Geoderma 86:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shoji S, Nanzyo M, Shirato Y, Ito T (1993) Soil Sci 155:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anderson HA, Berow ML, Framer VC, Hepburn A (1982) J Soil Sci 33:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Farmer VC (1982) Soil Sci Plant Nutr 28:571Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farmer VC, Lumdson DG (2001) Eur J Soil Sci 52:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wallace KB (1973) Geotechnique 23(4):203Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fieldes M (1966) NZ J Sci 9(3):599Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    De PK, Furdas B (1973) Geotechnique 23(4):601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fieldes M, Fuckert RJ (1966) NZ J Sci 9(3):608Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Granbow B (1989) Scientific basis for nuclear management VIII. Mater Res Symp Proc 44:159Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fillet S, Phalippou J, Zarzycki J, Nogues JL (1990) J Non-Cryst Solids 5:3118Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Macquet C, Thomassin J, Woignier T (1994) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 2:285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ohashi F, Wada S, Kakuto Y (2001) US patent 6,254,845Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wada S, Eto A, Wada K (1979) J Soil Sci 30:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Farmer VC, Fraser AR, Tailt JM (1977) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 13:462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Denaix L, Lamy I, Bottero JY (1999) Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 158:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Majid A, Argue S, Boyko V, Pleizer G, Lang S (2003) Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 224:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thorn MS, Trumbore E, Chadwick OA, Vitousek PM, Hendricks DM (1997) Nature 389:170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Onodora Y, Iwasaki T, Chatterjee A, Ebina T, Satoh T, Suzuki T, Mimura H (2001) Appl Clay Sci 18:12Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Freltof T, Kjems KJ, Sinha SK (1986) Phys Rev B 33:269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Teixera J (1988) J Appl Cryst 21:781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Buurman P, Peterse F, Almendros Martin G (2007) Eur J Soil Sci 58:1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Meakin P (1983) Phys Rev Lett 51:1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kolb M, Botet R, Jullien R (1983) Phys Rev Lett 51:1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jullien R, Botet R (1987) Aggregation and fractal aggregates. World Scientific Publisher, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dullien FAL (1979) Porous media fluid transport and pore structure. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Crank J (1975) Mathematics of diffusion. Clarendon Press, Oxford, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scherer GW, Alviso C, Pekala R, Gross J (1996) Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 431:497Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wyllie MRJ, Spangler MB (1952) Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 36(2):359Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carman J (1939) J Agric Sci 29:262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stanley HE (1984) kinetics of aggregation and gelation In: Familly F, Landau DP (eds) Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Courtens E, Vacher R, Phalippou J, Pelous J, Woignier T (1987) Phys Rev Lett 58:128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vacher R, Courtens E, Coddens G, Heideman A, Tsujimi Y, Pelous J (1990) Phys Rev Lett 65:1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Woignier T (1993) Habilitation Thesis Montpellier (France)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Herman HJ, Stanley HE (1988) J Phys A Math Gen 21:829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Meakin P, Majid I, Havlin S, Stanley HE (1984) J Phys A Math Gen 17:975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Houst YF (1996) Internationale Zeitschrift fur Bauinstandsetzen 2(1):49Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jenkinson DS, Adams DE, Wild A (1991) Nature 351:304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mellilo JM, Steudler PA, Aber JD, Morriseau S (2002) Science 298:2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Chevallier
    • 1
  • T. Woignier
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. Toucet
    • 1
  • E. Blanchart
    • 1
  • P. Dieudonné
    • 3
  1. 1.IRDUR SeqbioMontpellierFrance
  2. 2.IRDUR Seqbio, PRAM, CNRSLe LamentinFrance
  3. 3.CNRS-Université de MontpellierMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations