Polyvinylpyrrolidone/ZrO2-based sol–gel films applied in highly reflective mirrors for inertial confinement fusion

  • Liping Liang
  • Yao Xu
  • Lei Zhang
  • Dong Wu
  • Yuhan Sun
Original Paper

Abstract

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ZrO2-based hybrid thin films, with suitable properties for application in the high power lasers, have been prepared combining the advantages of both the sol–gel route and the organic-inorganic hybrid materials. By virtue of light scattering analysis, the chemical composition of the reaction system was fully optimized, endowing the films with good optical properties and high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). Light scattering studies also provided valuable structural information about the hybrid sols, which offered a better understanding of the structure and performance of the hybrid films. Our experiments showed that, in the hybrid sols, the incomplete substitution for the chelating ligands by the hydroxyls might considerably conceal and weaken the effect of PVP on the nucleation and growth of ZrO2 particles. Thus, the incorporation of PVP only resulted in slight decreases in the refractive index and LIDT of the films. By energy relaxation through their flexible polymer chains, however, the addition of PVP could easily enhance the stress compatibility between the high- and low-index layers and then facilitate the deposition of the multi-layer highly reflective mirrors.

Keywords

Zirconia Sol–gel Optical coatings Light scattering 

References

  1. 1.
    Thomas IM (1987) Appl Optics 26:4688Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Floch HG, Priotton JJ, Thomas IM (1990) SPIE 1328:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thomas IM (1994) SPIE 2288:50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McInnes HA, Andrew JE, Bazin NJ, Morris AJ, Porter KJ (1997) SPIE 3244:500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Belleville Ph, Bonnin C, Lavastre É, Pégon Ph, Rorato Y (2000) SPIE 4347:588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McInnes HA, Andrew JE, Bazin NJ, Morris AJ (2000) SPIE 3902:215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang QY, Shen J, Wang J, Wu GM, Chen LY (2000) Int J Inorg Mater 2:319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grosso D, Seromon PA (2000) Thin Solid Films 368:116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pégon P, Germain C, Rorato Y, Belleville Ph, Lavastre E (2004) SPIE 5250:170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Belleville Ph, Prené Ph, Bonnin C, Beaurain L, Montouillout Y, Lavastre É (2004) SPIE 5250:196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao Y, Tang ZS, Shao J, Fan Z (2004) SPIE 5273:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Higgins TV (1994) Laser Focus World 9:61Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reichling M, Bodemann A, Kaiser N (1998) Thin Solid Films 320:264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao YA, Gao WD, Shao JD, Fan ZX (2004) Appl Surf Sci 227:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thomas IM (1986) Appl Optics 25:1481Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tian GL, Huang JB, Wang T, He HB, Shao JD (2005) Appl Surf Sci 239:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang DW, Fan SH, Zhao YA, Gao WD, Shao JD, Fan RY, Wang YJ, Fan ZX (2005) Appl Surf Sci 243:232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhao YA, Wang T, Zhang DP, Fan SH, Shao JD, Fan ZX (2005) Appl Surf Sci 239:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhu XL, Shi L, Chan J, Wang J, Ye C, Lo D (2005) Opt Commun 251:322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Egger P, Sorarù GD, Diré S (2004) J Eur Ceram Soc 24:1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lenormand P, Caravaca D, Laberty-Robert C, Ansart F (2005) J Eur Ceram Soc 25:2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Egger P, Sorarù GD, Ceccato R, Diré S (2005) J Eur Ceram Soc 25:2647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stöber W, Fink A, Bohn E (1968) J Colloid Interface Sci 26:62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu Y, Liu RL, Wu D, Sun YH, Gao HC, Deng F (2005) J Non-Cryst Solids 351:2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kathryn GS, Jeffrey SL (1994) Chem Mater 6:890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ehrhart G, Capoen B, Robbe O, Boy Ph, Turrell S, Bouazaoui M (2006) Thin Solid Films 496:227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ohya T, Kabata M, Ban T, Ohya Y, Takahashi Y (2002) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 25:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Méndez-Vivar J, Mendoze-Serna R, Valdez-Castro L (2001) J Non-Cryst Solids 288:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pan M, Liu JR, Lu MK, Xu D, Yuan DR, Chen DR, Yang P, Yang ZH (2001) Thermochim Acta 376:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhao JP, Fan WH, Wu D, Sun YH (2000) J Non-Cryst Solids 261:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guinebretière R, Soulestin B, Dauger A (1998) Thin Solid Films 319:197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guinebretière R, Dauger A, Masson O, Soulestin B (1999) Phil Mag A 79:1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xu Y, Wu D, Sun YH, Li ZH, Dong BZ, Wu ZH (2005) Acta Phys Sin 54:2814Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keefer KD, Schaefer DW (1986) Phys Rev Lett 56:2376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McMahon PJ, Moss SD (2002) J Appl Cryst 32:956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xu Y, Zhang L, Wu D, Sun YH, Huang ZX, Jiang XD, Wei XF, Li ZH, Dong BZ, Wu ZH (2005) J Opt Soc Am B 22:905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brian LC, Vladimir LK, Charles JÓ (2004) Chem Rev 104:3893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xu Y, Zhang B, Fan WH, Wu D, Sun YH (2003) Thin Solid Films 440:180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kozuka H, Takenaka S, Tokita H, Okubayashi M (2004) J Eur Ceram Soc 24:1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Linardos S, Zhang Q, Alcock JR (2006) J Eur Ceram Soc 26:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sorek Y, Zevin M, Reisfeld R, Hurvits T, Ruschin S (1997) Chem Mater 9:670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cueto LF, Sánchez E, Torres-Martínez LM, Hirata GA (2005) Mater Charact 55:263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Díaz-Parralejo A, Caruso R, Ortiz AL, Guiberteau F (2004) Thin Solid Films 458:92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferrara MC, Perrone MR, Protopapa ML, Sancho-Parramon J, Bosch S, Mazzarelli S (2004) SPIE 5250:537CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liping Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yao Xu
    • 1
  • Lei Zhang
    • 1
  • Dong Wu
    • 1
  • Yuhan Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesTaiyuanChina
  2. 2.College of Material Science and EngineeringTaiyuan University of Science and TechnologyTaiyuanChina

Personalised recommendations