Synthesis of high surface area nanocrystalline anatase-TiO2 powders derived from particulate sol-gel route by tailoring processing parameters
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Stabilised titania sols were prepared using an additive free particulate sol-gel route, via electrostatic stabilisation mechanism, with various processing parameters. Peptisation temperature, 50°C and 70°C, and TiO2 concentration, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 molar, were chosen as processing parameters during sol preparation. Results from TiO2 particle size and zeta potential of sols revealed that the smallest titania hydrodynamic diameter (13 nm) and the highest zeta potential (47.7 mV) were obtained for the sol produced at the lower peptisation temperature of 50°C and lower TiO2 concentration of 0.1 M. On the other hand, between the sols prepared at 70°C, smaller titania particles (20 nm) and higher zeta potential (46.3 mV) were achieved with increasing TiO2 concentration up to 0.4 M. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results of produced powders annealed at different temperatures showed that the 300°C annealed powder made from 0.1 M sol prepared at 50°C was a mixture of anatase and brookite, corresponding to a major phase of anatase (∼95% estimated), with the smallest average crystallite size of 1.3 nm and the highest specific surface area (SSA) of 193 m2/g. Furthermore, increasing TiO2 concentration up to 0.4 molar for the sols prepared at 70°C resulted in decreasing the average crystallite size (1.9 nm at 300°C) and increasing SSA (116 m2/g at 300°C) of the powders annealed at different temperatures. Anatase-to-rutile phase transformation temperature was increased with decreasing peptisation temperature down to 50°C, whereas TiO2 concentration had no effect on this transition. Anatase percentage increased with decreasing both peptisation temperature and TiO2 concentration. Such prepared powders can be used in many applications in areas from photo catalysts to gas sensors.
KeywordsAnatase-TiO2 Sol-gel Processing parameters Characterisation
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