Structural, optical and photoelectron spectroscopic studies of nano/micro ZnO:Cd rods synthesized via sol-gel route
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- Maiti, U.N., Ghosh, P.K., Ahmed, S.F. et al. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol (2007) 41: 87. doi:10.1007/s10971-006-0116-7
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Thin films of cadmium doped zinc oxide rod like microstructure have been synthesized by a very simple sol-gel dip coating technique. Sols were prepared from hydrated zinc oxide precursor and 2-methoxyethanol solvent with monoethanolamine as a sol stabilizer. XRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the deposited ZnO films. Surface morphologies of the films have been studied by a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope, which confirmed that the films are composed of densely packed randomly oriented nano/submicron rods with diameter in the range 300–400 nm having various lengths. We proposed a possible growth mechanism for this rodlike structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study was used to determine the binding energies and the Zn 2p3/2, Cd 3d5 and O 1s peaks in the XPS spectra were located at 1021.08 eV, 404.6 eV and 529.8 eV respectively, which confirmed the Cd doping in ZnO. Cadmium content in the film was estimated both from energy dispersive X-ray analysis and XPS measurement. Band gap energy determined from optical transmittance spectra systematically varied from 3.28 eV to 3.15 eV for 0% to 5.6% of Cd doping. Urbach parameter determined from the band tail of the transmittance spectra showed that it increased with doping percentage and this parameter for a fixed cadmium doping level decreased with increase of temperature.