Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics

, Volume 6, Issue 2–3, pp 113–119 | Cite as

Recent Advances in GFP Folding Reporter and Split-GFP Solubility Reporter Technologies. Application to Improving the Folding and Solubility of Recalcitrant Proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • Stéphanie Cabantous
  • Jean-Denis Pédelacq
  • Brian L. Mark
  • Cleo Naranjo
  • Thomas C. TerwilligerEmail author
  • Geoffrey S. Waldo


We have improved our green fluorescent protein (GFP) folding reporter technology [Waldo et al., (1999) Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 691–695] to evolve recalcitrant proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The target protein is inserted into the scaffolding of the GFP, eliminating false-positive artifacts caused by expression of truncated protein variants from internal cryptic ribosome binding sites in the target RNA. In parallel, we have developed a new quantitative fluorescent protein tagging and detection system based on micro-domains of GFP. This split-GFP system, which works both in vivo and in vitro, is amenable to high-throughput assays of protein expression and solubility [Cabantous et al., (2005) Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 102–107]. Together, the GFP folding reporter and split-GFP technologies offer a comprehensive system for manipulating and improving protein folding and solubility.

Key words

directed evolution high-throughput screening protein folding split protein solubility 





green fluorescent protein


isopropyl thiogalactoside


maltose-binding protein


sodium chloride


small ubiquitin-like modifiers


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stéphanie Cabantous
    • 1
  • Jean-Denis Pédelacq
    • 1
  • Brian L. Mark
    • 1
  • Cleo Naranjo
    • 1
  • Thomas C. Terwilliger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Geoffrey S. Waldo
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioscience DivisionLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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