Assessment of tritium distribution in rain, surface and drinking water in Portugal during 2006–2017 period

  • M. J. MadrugaEmail author
  • A. R. Gomes
  • J. Abrantes
  • A. Libânio
  • M. Reis


Water samples from different origins (rain, surface and drinking) collected in Portugal during the years 2006 to 2017 were analyzed for the tritium (3H) activity contents using isotopic enrichment followed by liquid scintillation counting. Regarding rainwater, the results show no significant correlation between the normalized 3H and the precipitation amount and no variations among the annual seasons. The higher 3H values observed for Tejo River indicate the influence of the Almaraz NPP located in Spain. The 3H activity levels in drinking water were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the European parametric value (100 Bq L−1).


Tritium Liquid scintillation counting Rainwater Surface water Drinking water Portugal 



The authors would like to thank the colleague Eva Andrade for drawing up the map and the anonymous reviewers for the substantial suggestions, which greatly improved this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e NuclearBobadela LRSPortugal
  2. 2.Laboratório de Proteção e Segurança Radiológica, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e NuclearBobadela LRSPortugal
  3. 3.Instituto Português da Qualidade (IPQ)CaparicaPortugal

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