Elevated concentrations of the radium isotopes 224,226,228Ra exist in the scale and produced water in oil exploration. The activity concentration of 226Ra was calculated from 186.2 keV peak with no usual spectral interference of 185.7 from 235U. The activity concentration of 228Ra was calculated from its first daughter product 228Ac using the 911.2 keV gamma rays since it is a pure beta emitter. The activity concentration of 224Ra was calculated from 212Pb using the 238.6 keV gamma-ray and the secular equilibrium equation with 228Ra. The IAEA 448 (oil contaminated field soil) reference material was used as a quality control for 226,228Ra and but was unreliable for 224Ra using 212Pb.
Radium isotopes Oil scale Quality control
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