Contribution of micro-PIXE to the characterization of settled dust events in an urban area affected by industrial activities
This study aimed to identify possible sources of settled dust events that occurred in an urban area nearby an industrial park, which alarmed the local population. Settled dust was collected in January 2019 and its chemical characterization was assessed by micro-PIXE, focusing on a total of 29 elements. Comparison with chemical profiles of particulate matter from different types of environment was conducted, along with the assessment of crustal enrichment factors and Spearman correlations, allowing to understand which sources were contributing to this settled dust event. A nearby industrial area’s influence was identified due to the contents of Fe, Cr and Mn, which are typical tracers of iron and steel industries.
KeywordsAir pollution Industrial environments Pollution sources Settled dust Micro-PIXE
N. Canha acknowledges the support of the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT, Portugal) through the Postdoc Grant SFRH/BPD/102944/2014 and the contract IST-ID/098/2018 (Nuno Canha). The FCT support is also gratefully acknowledged by C2TN/IST authors (through the UID/Multi/04349/2013 project) and by CESAM author (through the CESAM’s strategic programme UID/AMB/50017/2013). The authors also acknowledge the support of Câmara Municipal do Seixal (Portugal) for their availability throughout all the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- 8.Meszaros E (1999) Fundamentals of atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Akadémiai Kiadó, BudapestGoogle Scholar
- 10.IARC (2013) Outdoor air pollution a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths. World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- 12.EEA (2018) Air quality in Europe—2018 report. EEA Report No 12/2018, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- 13.WHO Regional Office for Europe (2013) Health effects of particulate matter, p 20Google Scholar
- 18.Ramírez AS, Ramondt S, Van Bogart K, Perez-Zuniga R (2019) Public awareness of air pollution and health threats: challenges and opportunities for communication strategies to improve environmental health literacy. J Health Commun 24:75–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2019.1574320 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.PORDATA—Seixal Municipality (2019) https://www.pordata.pt/Municipios/Quadro+Resumo/Seixal+(Município)-233085. Accessed 5 May 2019
- 27.Mason B, Moore CB (1982) Principles of geochemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 29.Almeida SML (2004) Composiçao e origem do aerossol atmosférico em zona urbano-industrial. Universidade de AveiroGoogle Scholar
- 38.Larsen BR, Junninen H, Mønster J et al (2008) The Krakow receptor modelling inter-comparison exercise. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, EUR 23621 EN 2008, Ispra. https://doi.org/10.2788/33914
- 43.Lage J, Wolterbeek HT, Reis MA et al (2016) Source apportionment by positive matrix factorization on elemental concentration obtained in PM10 and biomonitors collected in the vicinities of a steelworks. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 309:397–404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-016-4751-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Pekney N, Davidson C, Zhou L, Hopke P (2006) Application of PSCF and CPF to PMF-modeled sources of PM2.5 in Pittsburgh. In: Aerosol science and technology. Taylor & Francis Group, pp 952–961Google Scholar