Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 322, Issue 2, pp 1097–1105 | Cite as

Malaysian monazite and its processing residue: chemical composition and radioactivity

  • Nurrul Assyikeen Md. Jaffary
  • Kok Siong KhooEmail author
  • Nor Hasimah Mohamed
  • Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof
  • Syazwani Mohd Fadzil


Malaysian monazite and its processing residue, the hydroxide cake has been studied focuses on establishing baseline evaluation in the viewpoint of radiation protection. The sample has chemically identified and characterized by using XRD, FTIR, and WDXRF analysis. The radioactivity of primordial radionuclides measured by gamma-ray hyper-pure germanium detector was found to be 28 ± 1, 213 ± 2, and 6 ± 2 Bq/g for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively, while for hydroxide cake, the values were 23 ± 1, 343 ± 2, and 20 ± 5 Bq/g respectively. The radiation indices of the samples were assessed with references to the average world values and had exceeded the international safety limits. Present results may help giving awareness in making a decision for the safety of living and working in rare earth industry and nuclear exploration in Malaysia.


Monazite Thorium Environmental radioactivity Gamma spectrometry Radiation indices 



Appreciation to the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and The National University of Malaysia for support through the use of instruments in the samples analyzed. Authors would like to thanks Mr. Ahmad Khairulikram Bin Zahari for the help during WDXRF analysis and Dr. Nor Pa’iza Bin Mohamad Hasan for providing the related information. The monazite ore was purchased under research grant Thorium Flagship SP0214D052 DSTIN from The Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment, and Climate Change, Malaysia (MESTECC).


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurrul Assyikeen Md. Jaffary
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kok Siong Khoo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nor Hasimah Mohamed
    • 2
  • Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof
    • 3
  • Syazwani Mohd Fadzil
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear Science Programme, Nuclear Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and TechnologyThe National University of MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Radiation Processing Technology DivisionMalaysian Nuclear AgencyKajangMalaysia
  3. 3.Waste and Environmental Technology DivisionMalaysian Nuclear AgencyKajangMalaysia

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