Assessment of annual effective dose from radium isotopes in groundwater samples in households along the lower Mekong River

  • Phan Long Ho
  • Vu Tuan Minh
  • Le Dinh Hung
  • Do Quoc Trung
  • Dang Van Chinh
  • Tran Thien ThanhEmail author
  • Chau Van Tao


In this study, the 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra in groundwater samples at Long Phu district were determined by HPGe detector with co-precipitation method. The median concentrations were 0.040 ± 0.005 Bq L−1, 0.039 ± 0.004 Bq L−1, and 0.049 ± 0.004 Bq L−1. Highest MDC values were 0.028 Bq L−1, 0.010 Bq L−1, 0.018 Bq L−1, respectively. It’s a strong relationship between 224Ra, 228Ra versus conductivity, salinity, TDS, SO42−. The annual effective dose of the age groups was lower than the WHO recommended value except for infants exceeding around 1.5 times. Besides, the 226Ra minimum recovery obtained was 90% with trueness 9.9% and relative percentage difference 6.1%.


Radium isotopes Groundwater Co-precipitation method Gamma spectrometry Annual effective dose Pearson correlation 



This research is funded by the Institute of Public Health in Ho Chi Minh City under Grant No. XN.18.14. The authors sincerely thank the residents and the Long Phu District Health Center for assistance in collecting samples. The authors would like to express our thanks to the anonymous reviewers of this manuscript, for their critical review and helpful discussions.


  1. 1.
    Asia Development Bank (2009) Water: Vital for Viet Nam’ s Future. Accessed 8 Nov 2018
  2. 2.
    WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn. WHO Publications, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IAEA (2016) Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water (IAEA-TECDOC-1788)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Condomines M, Rihs S, Lloret E, Seidel JL (2010) Determination of the four natural Ra isotopes in thermal waters by gamma-ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot 68:384–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ICRP (2012) Compendium of Dose Coefficients based on ICRP Publication 60. ICRP Publication 119. Ann. ICRP 41(Suppl.)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IAEA (2010) Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Radium Isotopes in Environmental Samples (IAEA/AQ/19)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Hamarneh IF, Almasoud FI (2018) A comparative study of different radiometric methodologies for the determination of 226Ra in water. Nucl Eng Technol 50:159–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jia G, Torri G, Innocenzi P et al (2006) Determination of radium isotopes in mineral and environmental water samples by alpha-spectrometry. J Radioanal Nuclear Chem 267:505–514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Medley P, Martin P, Bollhöfer A, Parry D (2015) 228Ra and 226Ra measurement on a BaSO4 co-precipitation source. Appl Radiat Isot 95:200–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rožmarić M, Rogić M, Benedik L, Štrok M (2012) Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose. Sci Total Environ 437:53–60. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diab HM, Abdellah WM (2013) Validation of 226Ra and 228Ra measurements in water samples using gamma spectrometric analysis. J Water Resour Prot 5:53–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parsa B, Obed RN, Nemeth WK, Suozzo G (2004) Concurrent determination of 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and unsupported 212Pb in a single analysis for drinking water and wastewater: dissolved and suspended fractions. Health Phys 86:145–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forte M, Abbate G, Badalamenti P et al (2015) Validation of a method for measuring 226Ra in drinking waters by LSC. Appl Radiat Isot 103:143–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Köhler M, Niese S, Gleisberg B et al (2000) Simultaneous determination of Ra and Th nuclides, 238U and 227Ac in uranium mining waters by γ-ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot 52:717–723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    APHA (2017) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 23rd edn. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment FederationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soctrang Statistics Office (2017) Soctrang statistics yearbook 2016. Statistics Publising House, General statistics office of VietnamGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tuan LA, Thuy HT, Van NV (2015) Water resource variation in the Hau River mouth. J Fish Sci Technol 50–56 (special issue)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hanh HT, Roland B (2017) Final Report IGPVN Activities and Achievements, Proposal of Recommendations and Measures for Water Resources Management in Sóc Trăng (Technical report Phase III—1)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    US.EPA (1997) Method 300.1, Revision 1.0: determination of inorganic anions in drinking water by ion chromatography, pp 0–39Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirkpatrick JM, Russ W, Venkataraman R, Young BM (2015) Calculation of the detection limit in radiation measurements with systematic uncertainties. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect A Accel Spectro Detect Assoc Equip 784:306–310. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    IAEA (2017) Determination and interpretation of characteristic limits for radioactivity measurements (IAEA/AQ/48)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lépy MC, Pearce A, Sima O (2015) Uncertainties in gamma-ray spectrometry. Metrologia 52:S123–S145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    UNSCEAR (2015) Attachment C-13: methodology for the assessment of dose from external exposure and inhalation of radioactive material. UN PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grande S, Risica S (2015) Radionuclides in drinking water: the recent legislative requirements of the European Union. J Radiol Prot 35:1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    IAEA (2014) A procedure for the rapid determination of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in drinking water by liquid scintillation counting (IAEA/AQ/39)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salutsky M, Kirby H (1964) The radiochemistry of radium. National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council (NAS-NS 3057). U.S. Atomic Energy CommissionGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Szabo Z, DePaul VT, Fischer JM et al (2012) Occurrence and geochemistry of radium in water from principal drinking water aquifer systems of the United States. Appl Geochem 27:729–752. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beldjazia A, Alatou D (2016) Precipitation variability on the massif Forest of Mahouna (North Eastern-Algeria) from 1986 to 2010. Int J Manag Sci Bus Res 5:2226–8235Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of ScienceVNU-HCMHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Department of TestingInstitute of Public HealthHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.Nuclear Technique Laboratory, University of ScienceVNU-HCMHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations