Advertisement

Activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples along the coastal areas of Kerala, India and the assessment of radiation hazard indices

  • M. RamsiyaEmail author
  • Antony Joseph
  • K. P. Eappen
  • A. K. Visnuprasad
Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

The present study was carried out along the coastal regions of Kerala, India, to evaluate the distribution of uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations in surface soil samples. A total of 92 soil samples were collected from 9 coastal districts, lying by the side of the Arabian Sea. The radium equivalent activities in the beach sands of Kollam district varies from 877 to 3715 Bq kg−1, which is higher than the reference limit of 370 Bq kg−1. Results show that the radiological parameters obtained for the beach sand from the districts of Thiruvananthapuram, Alapuzha, Eranakulam, Thrissur, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Kannur and Kasaragod are within the safe limits and hence these places can be considered as Normal Background Radiation Areas. Thus, when the high radioactive places are confined to a narrow belt in Kollam district, the other coastal areas of Kerala, especially northern and middle zones are within the safe limit with respect to radiological index.

Keywords

Thorium Monazite Kerala coasts Radiological parameters Activity concentrations Radium equivalent activity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of the authors (Ramsiya M.) acknowledges with thanks, UGC Govt. of India for MANF fellowship and for SAP facilities in the department. The technical help received from Mr. Jamshihas A P, Vishnu C V and Midhun C V are gratefully acknowledged.

Funding

The funding was provided by Ministry of Minority Affairs (Grant No. 22627).

References

  1. 1.
    UNSCEAR (2000) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, sources and effects of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 report, vol 1 to the general assembly, with scientific annexes, United Nations Sales Publication, United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mohanty AK, Sengupta D, Das SK, Saha SK, Van KV (2004) Natural radioactivity and radiation exposure in the high background area at Chhatrapur beach placer deposit of Orissa, India. J Environ Radioact 75:15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghosal S, Agrahari S, Guin R, Sengupta D (2017) Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 184:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Radhakrishna AP, Somasekarapa HM, Narayana Y, Siddappa K (1993) A new natural background radiation area on the southwest coast of India. Health Phys 65:390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kannan V, Rajan MP, Iyengar MAR, Ramesh R (2003) Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil and beach sand samples of Kalpakkam (India) using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot 57:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shetty PK, Narayana Y, Siddappa K (2006) Vertical profiles and enrichment pattern of natural radionuclides in monazite areas of coastal Kerala. J Environ Radioact 86:132–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramasamy V, Sundarrajan M, Paramasivam K, Meenakshisundaram V, Suresh G (2013) Assessment of spatial distribution and radiological hazardous nature of radionuclides in high background radiation area, Kerala, India. Appl Radiat Isot 73:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sunta CM, David M, Abani MC, Basu AS, Nambi KSV (1982) Analysis of dosimetry data of high natural radioactivity areas of southwest coast of India. The natural radiation environment. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, pp 35–42Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alam MN, Chowdhury MI, Kamal M, Ghose S, Islam MN, Mustafa MN, Miah MMH, Ansary MM (1994) The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities in beach sand mineral and beach soils of Coxs Bazar, Bangladesh. J Environ Radioact 46:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Narayana Y, Shetty PK, Siddappa K (2005) Enrichment of natural radionuclides in monazite areas of coastal Kerala. Intr Congr Ser 1276:333–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shetty PK, Narayana Y (2010) Variation of radiation level and radionuclide enrichment in high background area. J Environ Radio Act 30:1–5Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    District Survey Report of Minor Minerals (2016) Prepared as per Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) notification 2006 issued under environment (protection) act 1986. Department of mining and geology. Government of Kerala, India. http://www.dmg.kerala.gov.in
  13. 13.
    Kerala Marine Fisheries Statistics (2015) Director of Fisheries, Government of Kerala, India. http://www.fisheries.kerala.gov.in/images/pdf2017/marine_2015.pdf
  14. 14.
    Chougaonkar MP, Eappen KP, Ramachandran TV, Shetty PG, Mayya YS, Sadasivan S, Venkat Raj V (2004) Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India. J Environ Radioact 71:275–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sroor A, Afifi SY, Abdel-Haleem AS, Salman AB, Abdel-Sammad M (2002) Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, South Western desert, Egypt. Appl Radiat Isot 57:427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huang Y, Xinwei L, Ding X, Feng T (2015) Natural radioactivity level in beach sand along the coast of Xiamen Island, China. Mar Pollut Bull 91:357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Veiga R, Sanches N, Anjos RM, Macario K, Bastos J, Iguatemy M, Aguiar JG, Santos AMA, Mosquera B, Carvalho C, Baptista Filho M, Umisedo NK (2006) Measurement of natural radioactivity in Brazilian beach sands. Radiat Meas 41:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Iyer MR (2018) Origin of thorium deposits in Kerala beach sands. Radiat Prot Environ 38:98–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aswathanarayana U (1985) Principles of nuclear geology. Oxonian Press Pvt, Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    UNSCEAR (2017) Sources, effects and risks of ionising radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, report to the general assembly with scientific annexes A and BGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    UNSCEAR (2008) Sources and effects of ionising radiation, vol 1 United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, report to the general assembly with scientific annexeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Punniyakotti J, Ponnusamy V (2018) Environmental radiation and potential ecological risk levels in the intertidal zone of southern region of Tamil Nadu coast (HBRAs), India. Mar Pollut Bull 127:377–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suresh Gandi M, Ravisankar R, Rajalakshmi A, Sivakumar S, Chandrasekaran A, Anand DP (2014) Measurements of natural gamma radiation in beach sediments of north east coast of Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry with multivariate statistical approach. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 7:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Arabi AM (2005) Natural radioactivity in sand used in thermal therapy at the Red Sea Coast. J Environ Radioact 81:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Song G, Che D, Tang Z, Zhang Z, Xie W (2012) Natural radioactivity levels in top soil from the Pearl River Delta Zone, Guangdong, China. J Environ Radioact 103:48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taskin H, Karavus M, Ay P, Topuzoglu A, Hidiroglu S, Karahan G (2009) Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey. J Environ Radioact 100:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Malain D, Regan PH, Bradley DA, Matthews M, Santawamaitre T, Al-Sulaiti HA (2010) Measurements of NORM in beach sand samples along the Andaman coast of Thailand after the 2004 Tsunami. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect A 619:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Freitas AC, Alencar AS (2004) Gamma dose rates and distribution of natural radionuclides in sand beaches-Ilha Grande, South eastern Brazil. J Environ Radioact 75:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ramsiya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antony Joseph
    • 1
  • K. P. Eappen
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. K. Visnuprasad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CalicutKeralaIndia
  2. 2.BARCMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.IECNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsFatima Mata National CollegeKollamIndia

Personalised recommendations