The partitioning of 131I in sludge samples from a wastewater treatment plant
- 54 Downloads
This study analyses the partition of 131I in organic, inorganic and residual fractions from secondary and digested sludge. Due to the microbiological process in the aeration tank, it was found that the secondary sludge sample had the highest 131I content associated with the organic fraction. In the digested sludge, the organic fraction was smaller due to the anaerobic digestion of part of the organic matter. In this case, 131I was also distributed into the inorganic and residual fractions. Based on this second result, the potential volatilization of 131I in the anaerobic digester has been assessed. The results showed that this radionuclide was not present in air samples, and therefore the potential exposure through inhalation would be negligible for WWTP workers.
Keywords131I Wastewater treatment plant Secondary sludge Digested sludge Organic matter Radionuclides
The authors are grateful for the support of Aigües de Reus for giving us the opportunity to take samples inside the Reus WWTP. We also thank KEMIRA IBERICA SA for kindly providing us their coagulant products.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
- 1.European Commission (2014) Commission Decision of 18 December 2014 amending Decision 2000/532/EC on the list of waste pursuant to Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European UnionGoogle Scholar
- 2.Law 22/2011 (2011) Law 22/2011, of 28th July, of wastes and contaminated soils. Official State Gazette 181. Madrid, 29th of July, SpainGoogle Scholar
- 5.Sun YH, Yang ZH, Luo YM (2009) The counts and environmental risks of pathogens in sewage sludge from Yangtze River Delta. In: 3rd Int Conf Bioinforma Biomed Eng iCBBE 2009 8–11. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBBE.2009.5163585
- 7.Lopes TR, Pletsch AL, Periotto F et al (2018) Efficiency Physics and Chemistry in Different Sewage Treatment Systems in Environmental Contaminants Removal. J Environ Eng 144:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001428 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.European Commission (1986) Protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture. Off J Eur Communities 4:6–12Google Scholar
- 14.WDS (2000) Working document on sludge 3rd draft. WDS, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- 24.Ortiz J, Ballesteros L, Zarza I, Serradell V (2004) Radioactivity study in a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Radiological Impact Evaluation. In: IRPA Congress 5G (1)Google Scholar
- 25.Zehringer M (2018) Fate of Radiopharmaceuticals in the Environment. In: Sewage. IntechOpenGoogle Scholar
- 27.Souti M-E, Hormann V, Toma E, Fischer HW (2014) I-131 Extraction from fresh water and Sewage plant effluent. Ext Abstr 3:4–7Google Scholar
- 30.Avila R, Cruz I De, Sundell-Bergman S, Hasselblad S (2007) Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden. SSI rapport: 2007:10Google Scholar
- 31.Punt A, Millward G, Gardner M (2007) Science Report - SC020150/SR1 Radionuclide partitioning to sewage sludge—a laboratory investigation. Environment Agency, BristolGoogle Scholar
- 33.AENOR (2016) Water quality. Determination of the activity concentration of radionuclides. Method by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISO 10703:2007). AENOR, MadridGoogle Scholar
- 34.Kelly M, Thorne M (2003) Radionuclides handbook, R&D Technical Report P3-101/SP1b. Environment AgencyGoogle Scholar
- 36.APHA (2012) Standard methods for the examinaton of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. APHA, AWWA, WEF, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 40.Zia S, Graham D, Dolfing J (2013) Wastewater treatment: biological. In: Jørgensen SE (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental management. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 2645–2656Google Scholar