Liquid–liquid extraction of mercury(II) from aqueous solution using furosemide in benzyl alcohol

  • Y. A. Abbasi
  • S. ShahidaEmail author
  • A. Ali
  • M. H. Khan


A simple, efficient and economical liquid–liquid extraction method has been developed for quantitative extraction of mercury(II) from aqueous buffer solution using furosemide in benzyl alcohol. The effect of various parameters and of various anions and cations on the extraction of mercury(II) was investigated. The separation factor of mercury was quite high in the presence of a number of transition and rare earth metals at pH 3.5. Among strippants, sodium thiosulphate was found most suitable, and the recovery of mercury was noted to be 98%. The stoichiometric composition of the extracted species was found to be [Hg(FS)2].


Liquid–liquid extraction Hg(II) Furosemide Benzyl alcohol 



We are grateful to the Reactor Operation Group (ROG) of PINSTECH Islamabad, Pakistan for irradiating the target samples in the research reactor for the production of radionuclides used in this study. We are also grateful to Higher Education Commission, Pakistan for providing financial support to complete this study.


  1. 1.
    Clifton JC (2007) Mercury exposure and public health. Pediatr Clin North Am 54(2):237–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clarkson TW, Magos L (2006) The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 36(8):609–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hylander LD, Goodsite ME (2006) Environmental costs of mercury pollution. Sci Total Environ 368(1):352–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ospar T (2008) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of the European Union. OJEC 348:84–97Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matlock MM, Howerton BS, Atwood DA (2001) Irreversible precipitation of mercury and lead. J Hazard Mater 84:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barron-Zambrano J, Laborie S, Viers P, Rakib M, Durand G (2004) Mercury removal and recovery from aqueous solutions by coupled complexation-ultrafiltration and electrolysis. J Membr Sci 229:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anirudhan TS, Divya L, Ramachandran M (2008) Mercury (II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery. J Hazard Mater 157:620–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Z, Wei Q, Yuan R, Zhou X, Liu H, Shan H, Song Q (2007) A new room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a solvent for extraction and preconcentration of mercury with determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 71:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basha S, Murthy ZVP, Jha B (2009) Sorption of Hg(II) onto Carica papaya: experimental studies and design of batch sorber. Chem Eng J 147:226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rae IB, Gibb SW, Lu S (2009) Biosorption of Hg from aqueous solutions by crab carapace. J Hazard Mater 164:1601–1604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prashant DZ, Dattatray MD (2007) Retrieval of mercury from wastewater as stable mercury ferrite. Water Qual Res J Canada 42:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marcus Y, Kertes AS (1969) Ion exchange and solvent extraction of metal complexes. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meera R, Francis T, Reddy MLP (2001) Studies on the liquid–liquid extraction of mercury (II) from acidic chloride solutions using Cyanex 923. Hydrometallurgy 61(2):97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sato T, Enokida T, Noguchi Y (2002) Liquid–liquid extraction of mercury (II) from hydrochloric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate. Solvent Extr Res Dept Jpn 9:1–11Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bicak N, Sungur S, Gazi M, Tan N (2003) Selective liquid–liquid extraction of mercuric ions by octyl methane sulfonamide. Sci Technol. 38(1):201–217Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wahlen R, Catterick T (2004) Simultaneous co-extraction of organometallic species of different elements by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled to liquid and gas chromatography. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18(2):211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fontas C, Hidalgo M, Salvado V, Antico E (2005) Selective recovery and preconcentration of mercury with a benzoylthiourea-solid supported liquid membrane system. Anal Chim Acta 547(2):255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zaijun L, Qin W, Rui Y, Xia Z, Huizhen L, Haixia S, Qijun S (2007) A new room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a solvent for extraction and preconcentration of mercury with determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 71(1):68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhefeng F, Xuejuan L (2008) Determination of methyl mercury and phenyl mercury in water samples by liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 1180(1–2):187–192Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sadeghi S, Mohammadzadeh D, Yamini Y (2003) Solid-phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) in natural waters. Anal Bioanal Chem 375:698–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sadeghi S, Mohammadzadeh D, Imampur JS (2005) Selective transport of copper (II) ions across a liquid membrane mediated by Piroxicam. Anal Bioanal Chem 383:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nastasi MJC, Lima FW (1977) Solvent extraction of the lanthanide elements, scandium, uranium and thorium using tetracycline as complexing agent. J Radioanal Chem 35:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saiki M, Lima FW (1978) Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent. Radiochem Radioanal Lett 35(1–2):63–66Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ali A, Yasar AA, Khan MH, Saeed MM (2010) Liquid–liquid extraction of Nd(III) and Eu(III) using nalidixic acid in dichloromethane. Radiochim Acta 98(8):513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yasar AA, Ali A, Khan MH, Saeed MM, Naeem K (2012) Liquid–liquid extraction of scandium with nalidixic acid in dichloromethane. J Radional Nucl Chem 292(1):277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shahida S, Ali A, Khan MH, Saeed MM (2013) Flow injection online spectrophotometric determination of uranium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid. Environ Monit Assess 185(2):1613–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahida S, Ali A, Khan MH (2013) On-line spectrophotometric determination of scandium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid. J Iran Chem Soc 10(3):461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shahida S, Ali A (2014) Determination of europium (III) in environmental samples using a flow injection analysis system with on-line preconcentration and spectrophotometric detection. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 300(1):423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shahida S, Ali A, Khan MH, Saeed MM (2011) Flow injection on-line determination of uranium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with dibenzoylmethane. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 289(3):929–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shahida S, Ali A, Khan MH (2014) Flow injection on-line spectrophotometric determination of thorium (IV) after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with oxytetracycline. J Iran Chem Soc 11(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wright JM, Lee CH, Camber EK (1999) Systematic review of anti-hypertensive therapies: Does the evidence assist in choosing a first-line drug? Can Med Assoc J 161:25–32Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goodman LS, Gilman A (2011) the pharmacological basis of therapeutic, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yoshimasa O, Akio A, Yoshihiro T, Abe H (1976) A metal complexing property of furosemide and bumetanide. Determination of pka and stability constants. Arznein-forsch 26:11–13Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lustri WR, Lazarini SM, Lustri BR, Corbi PP, Silva MAC, Aquino R, Amaral AC, Filho OT, Massabni AC, Barud HS (2017) Spectroscopic characterization and biological studies in vitro of a new silver complex with furosemide: prospective of application as an antimicrobial agent. J Mol Struct 1134:386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uwe H, Heinrich VZ, Naturforsch B (1994) Zinc complex of sulfonamide. Chem Sci 49:1725–1730Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ljiljana Z, Snezana A, Dusanka R (1990) Spectrophotometric determination of furosemide as its Fe(III) complex in pharmaceutical preparations. Mikrochim Acta 1:49–54Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khade BC, Deore PM, Arbad BR (2007) Potentiometric studies on the stability constants of some drugs with Cu(II), Cr(III) and Ca(II) in 80% v/v ethanol-water medium. Acta Ciencia Indica Chem 33:105–108Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Golcu A (2006) Spectrophotometric determination of furosemide in pharmaceutical dosage forms using complex formation with Cu(II). J Anal Chem 61:748–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan MH, Shahida S, Ali A (2008) Liquid–liquid extraction of uranium from nitric acid solution using di-n-butylsulfoxide in petroleum ether as extractant. Radiochim Acta 96:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fabrega FM, Guimaraes AS, Resende GPS, Mansur MB (2016) Solvent extraction of mercury (II) from aqueous chloride solutions using Cyanex 302. Miner Proc Extrac Metall IMM Trans 126(4):1–6Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nyman CJ, Salazar T (1961) Complex ion formation of mercury (II) and thiosulfate ion. Anal Chem 33(11):1467–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen J, Wang Y, Wei X, Xu P, Xu W, Ni R, Meng J (2018) Magnetic solid-phase extraction for the removal of mercury from water with ternary hydro sulphonyl-based deep eutectic solvent modified magnetic graphene oxide. Talanta 188(1):454–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lyman J, Fleming RH (1940) Composition of sea water. J Mar Res 3:134–146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Azad Jammu & KashmirMuzaffarabad, AJKPakistan
  2. 2.Chemistry DivisionPakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.The University of PoonchRawalakot, Azad Jammu & KashmirPakistan
  4. 4.Women University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir BaghBaghPakistan

Personalised recommendations