Advertisement

Assessment of ingestion dose due to radioactivity in selected food matrices and water near Vizag, India

  • A. C. Patra
  • S. Mohapatra
  • S. K. Sahoo
  • P. Lenka
  • J. S. Dubey
  • V. K. Thakur
  • A. V. Kumar
  • P. M. Ravi
  • R. M. Tripathi
Article

Abstract

Activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs were measured in milk, egg, fruit and fish samples collected around a proposed site for setting up nuclear facilities, near Vishakhapatanam. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides ranged from 0.002 to 10.6, 0.002 to 2.8, 0.1 to 7.2, 3 to 110.8, 0.03 to 3 mBq g−1 for 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs considering analysed food matrices. Natural uranium was measured in drinking water samples and the values were below 15 ppb. The average ingestion dose was 2.07 ± 2.01, 2.81 ± 4.38, 7.66 ± 8.24, 1.28 ± 0.84 and 0.04 ± 0.05 μSv year−1 for 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in milk, egg, fruit, fish and water. The ingestion dose received was the highest for milk, due to its high ingestion rate. It was observed that 226Ra is the largest contributor of measured radionuclides in this study for the different food matrices analysed due to its high dose conversion factor. The study was carried out as a part of baseline data generation for this region with which future changes in the radiological scenario can be compared.

Keywords

Radionuclide Food matrix Baseline data Activity concentration Ingestion dose 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the guidance and encouragement of Dr. D. N. Sharma, Director, Health Safety and Environment Group, BARC. The help and support received from Prof. Someswara Rao N. and his team of Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and Shri C. G. Sumesh and Shri N. S. Krishna of HS&EG, BARC during sample collection and processing are acknowledged. Suggestions and help from other colleagues during the preparation of this manuscript are also acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Benville A, Lowder AM (1987) Human population exposures to cosmic radiation. In: 4th International conference on the natural radiation environment, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Misdaq MA, Ezzahery H, Elabboubi D (2001) Determination of equivalent dose rates and committed effective doses in the respiratory system from the inhalation of radon decay products by using SSNTD and a dosimetric compartmental model. Radiat Prot Dosim 93:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisenne IM, Perry Decker KM, Keller HW (1987) The daily intake of 234,235,238U, 228,230,232Th and 226,228Ra by NewYork City residents. Health Phys 53:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shiraishi K, Tagami K, Muramatsu Y, Yamamoto M (2000) Contributions of 18 food categories to intakes of 232Th and 238U in Japan. Health Phys 78:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tzortzis M, Tsertos H (2004) Determination of thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus. J Environ Radioact 77:325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    UNSCEAR (2000) Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, Report to General Assembly. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Puranik VD (2005) Natural radiation and radioactivity In: Proceeding of 15th national symposium of environment, pp 42–48Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vinod Kumar A, Sahoo SK, Sumesh CG, Krishna NS, Tripathi RM, Puranik VD, Kushwaha HS (2010) Assessment of environmental gamma radiation and radon levels in and around the new BARC campus, Visakhapatnam. BARC Report BARC/2010/I/003Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramachandran TV, Mishra UC (1989) Measurement of natural radioactivity levels in Indian foodstuffs by gamma spectrometry. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A 40(8):723–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar M, Prasher S, Singh S (2009) Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India. Indian J Phys 83(7):1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tripathi RM, Sahoo SK, Jha VN, Kumar R, Shukla AK, Puranik VD, Kushwaha HS (2010) Radiation dose to members of public residing around uranium mining complex, Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India. Radiat Prot Dosim. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncq496
  12. 12.
    Lenka P, Sahoo SK, Mohapatra S, Patra AC, Dubey JS, Vidyasagar D, Tripathi RM, Puranik VD (2012) Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area. Radiat Prot Dosim, Odisha, India. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncs115 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    IAEA (1989) Measurement of radionuclides in food and the environment, a guide book. Technical Report Series 295, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shukla VK, Chinnaesakki S, Shanbhag AA, Sartandel SJ, Srivastava GK, Khan AH, Puranik VD (2004) In: Proceedings of the national symposium on environment, pp 445–448Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chakrabarty A, Tripathi RM, Puranik VD (2009) Occurrences of NORMS and 137Cs in soils of the Singhbhum region of Eastern India and associated radiation hazard. Radioprotection 44(1):55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim KH, Burnett WC (1985) 226Ra in phosphate nodules from the Peru/Chile seafloor. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:1073–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Patra AC, Mohapatra S, Sahoo SK, Lenka P, Dubey JS, Tripathi RM, Puranik VD (2013) Age dependent dose and health risk due to intake of uranium in drinking waters from Jaduguda, India. Radiat Prot Dosim 1–7, doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncs328
  18. 18.
    IAEA BSS (1996) International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources. Safety Series no. 115Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IAEA-TECDOC-1005 (1998) Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics for a Reference Asian man, Volume 1: Data summary and conclusionsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bronzovic M, Marcovic G (2005) Age-dependent dose assessment of 226Ra from bottled water intake. Health Phys 88(5):480–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    AERB (2004) Directive for limit on uranium in drinking water. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, India, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    WHO (2004) Guidelines for drinking water—Water quality, vol 1, 3rd edn, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jibiri NN, Farai IP, Alausa SK (2007) Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K in different food crops from a high background radiation area in Bitscichi, Jos Plateau. Nigeria Radiat Environ Biophys 46:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arogunjo AM, Ofuga EE, Afolabi MA (2005) Levels of natural radionuclides in some Nigerian cereals and tubers. J Environ Radioact 82:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sankaran AV, Jayaswal B, Nambi KSV, Sunta CM (1986) U, Th and K distributions inferred from regional geology and the terrestrial radiation profiles in India. BARC ReportGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Iyengar GV, Kawamura H, Dang HS, Parr RM, Wang JW, Akhter P, Cho SY, Natera E, Miah FK, Nguyen MS (2004) Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides. J Environ Radioact 77:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Akhter P, Rahman K, Orfi SD, Ahmad N (2007) Radiological impact of dietary intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on Pakistan adults. Food Chem Toxicol 45:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Min-Seok Choi, Xiu-Jing Lin, Lee Sun Ah, Wan Kim, Hee-Dong Kang, Sih-Hong Doh, Do-Sung Kim, Dong-Myung Lee (2008) Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods. J Environ Radioact 99:1319–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nasreddine L, El Samad O, Hwalla N, Baydourn R, Hamzé M, Parent-Massin D (2008) Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet. Radiat Prot Dosim 131(4):545–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hernández F, Hernández-Armas J, Catalán A, Fernández-Aldecoa JC, Landeras MI (2004) Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose of foodstuffs on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Rad Prot Dosim 111(2):205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    MIwilo NA, Mohammed NK, Spyrou NM (2007) Radioactivity levels in staple foodstuffs and dose estimates for most of the Tanzanian population. J Radiol Prot 27:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ele Abiama P, Ben-Bolie GH, Amechmachi N, Najib F, El Koukhi t, Owono Ateba P (2012) Annual intakes of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in staple foodstuffs from a high background radiation area in the southwest region of Cameroon. J Environ Radioact 110:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    IAEA TRS 295(1989). Measurement of Radionuclides in Food and the Environment. A Guidebook. IAEA ViennaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bolca M, Saç MM, Çokuysal B, Karal T, Ekdal E (2007) Radioactivity in soils and various foodstuffs from the Gediz River Basin of Turkey. Radiat Meas 42:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hosseini T, Fathivand AA, Abbasisiar F, Karimi M, Barati H (2006) Assessment of annual effective dose from 238U and 226Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Tehran city, Iran. Radiat Prot Dosim 121(3):330–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    El Samad O, Alayan R, Baydoun R, Zaidan W (2012) Radiation baseline levels in Lebanon: environmental survey and public dose assessment. Leban Sci J 13(2):37–48Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ross EM, Raj YL, Wesley SG, Rajan MP (2013) Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India. J Environ Radioact 115:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kamath PR, Bhat IS, Khan AA, Ganguly AK (1968) Pre-operational search for Baseline radioactivity, critical food and population group at the Tarapur Atomic Power station site. In: Proceedings of the 1st international congress of radiation protection, pp 1111–1125Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rao DD, Baburajan A, Sudheendran V, Verma PC, Hegde AG (2010) Evaluation and assessment of 25 years of environmental radioactivity monitoring data at Tarapur (India) nuclear site. J Environ Radioact 101:630–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Patra
    • 1
  • S. Mohapatra
    • 1
  • S. K. Sahoo
    • 1
  • P. Lenka
    • 1
  • J. S. Dubey
    • 1
  • V. K. Thakur
    • 1
  • A. V. Kumar
    • 2
  • P. M. Ravi
    • 1
  • R. M. Tripathi
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Physics DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Radiation Safety Systems DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations