Vitrified municipal waste as a host form for high-level nuclear waste

  • N. A. El-Alaily
  • E. M. Abou-Hussein
  • Y. K. Abdel-Monem
  • T. D. Abd Elaziz
  • F. M. Ezz-Eldin


Preparing glass to be used as a radioactive waste immobilizer from municipal waste is the aim of this paper. Up to 90 wt% of municipal waste was obtained by burning the raw waste at 700 °C for 5 h; this were successfully vitrified into borosilicate and sodium borate glasses at ~1,200 °C. The long term behavior of such glass is one of the most important factors, which is determined by their durability in aqueous solution. Experimental durability data of the prepared glass immersed in ground water together with γ-irradiation was found to be affected according to the different irradiation doses. In addition, thermal analysis and glass surface morphology were investigated. The evolution of the damage on the studied properties was correlated to the changes in the glass network depending on their composition and irradiation dose. The results showed that glass matrix containing higher amount of municipal waste possess high durability and low thermal expansion after being gamma irradiated. The results showed that glass containing higher amount of municipal waste possess high durability and low thermal expansion after irradiation.


Glasses Recycling Radiation Corrosion 


  1. 1.
    Yang J, Xiao B, Boccaccini AR (2009) Preparation of low melting glass–ceramics from municipal waste incinerators fly ash. Fuel 88:1275–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saikaia N, Kato S, Kojima T (2006) Composition and leaching behaviors of combustion residues. Fuel 85:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park YJ, Heo J (2009) Verification of fly ash from solid waste incinerator. J Hazard Mater B 91:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roth G, Weisenburger S (2000) Vitrification of high-level waste: glass chemistry, process chemistry and process technology. Nucl Eng Des 202:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frugier P, Martin C, Ribet I, Advocat T, Gin S (2005) The effect of composition on the leaching of three nuclear waste glasses R7T7, AVM, and VRZ. J Nucl Mater 346:194–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jollivet P, Parisot G (2005) Leach testing at 50 °C of α doped 50N68 glass alteration gels. J Nucl Mater 345:46–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ojovan MI, Pankov A, Lee WE (2006) The ion exchange phase in corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. J Nucl Mater 358:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antropova TV (2004) Kinetics of corrosion of the alkali borosilicate glasses in acid solution. J Non Cryst Solids 345:270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weber WJ, Ewing RC, Angel CA, Arnold GW, Cormack AN, Delaye JM, Griscom DL, Hobbs LW, Navrotsky A, Price DL, Stoneham AM, Weinberg MC (1997) Radiation effects in glasses used for immobilization of high level waste and plutonium disposition. J Mater Res 12:1948–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ojovan MI, Lee WE (2004) Alkali ion exchange γ irradiated glasses. J Nucl Mater 335:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cormack AN, Du J, Zeitler TR (2003) Sodium ion migration mechanisms in silicate glasses probed by molecular dynamic simulations. J Non Cryst Solids 323:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Skuja L (1998) Deficiency related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide optically active oxygen. J Non Cryst Solids 239:16–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ojovan MI, Hand RJ, Ojovan NV, Lee WE (2005) Corrosion of alkali-borosilicate waste glass K-26 in non-saturated conditions. J Nucl Mater 340:12–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lemmens K, Van Iseghem P (2001) Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 663:86Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sheng J, Luo s, Tang B (1999) The leaching behavior of borate glass SL-1. Waste Manag 19:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khedr AA, ElBatal HA (1996) Corrosion of zinc containing cabal glasses by various leaching solutions. J Am Ceram Soc 79(3):733–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ezz-Eldin FM, Abd-Elaziz TD, El-Alaily NA (2010) Effect of dilute Hf solution on chemical, optical and mechanical properties of soda–lime–silica glass. J Mater Sci 45:5937–5949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    El-Aalaily NA, Saad EA, Mahmoud HH, Ghonaim NA, Abd-Elaziz TD, Hamed E, Ezz-Eldin FM (2007) Effect of different aqueous solutions on gamma irradiated commercial and simulated soda lime silica glasses. Egypt J Chem 50(5):645–666Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    El-Aalaily NA (2003) Study of some properties of lithium silicate glass and glass ceramics containing blast furnace slag. Glass Technol 44(1):30–38Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simonin AO, Fortin J, Gueguen Y, Schubnel A (2011) Cracks in glass under trioxial conditions. J Eng Sci 49:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    El-Alaily NA, Mohamed RM (2003) Effect of irradiation on some optical and density of lithium borate glass. Mater Sci Eng B98:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    ElBatal HA, El-Alaily NA (2001) Thermal expansion of some gamma irradiated lead borate glasses. Nucl Sci J 38(5):314–322Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barbieri L, Corradi A, Lancellotte I (2002) Thermal and chemical behaviour of different glasses containing steel fly ash and their transformation into glass ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 22:1759–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. A. El-Alaily
    • 1
  • E. M. Abou-Hussein
    • 1
  • Y. K. Abdel-Monem
    • 2
  • T. D. Abd Elaziz
    • 3
  • F. M. Ezz-Eldin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Radiation Research and TechnologyCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceEl-Mounofia UniversityEl-MounofiaEgypt
  3. 3.October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA)6th October CityEgypt

Personalised recommendations