Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 299, Issue 2, pp 1085–1091 | Cite as

Fundamental aspects of molecular plating and production of smooth crack-free Nd targets

  • A. Vascon
  • S. Santi
  • A. A. Isse
  • T. Reich
  • J. Drebert
  • H. Christ
  • K. Eberhardt
  • Ch. E. Düllmann
Article

Abstract

A general understanding of the molecular plating process was obtained recently, which serves as a first step towards further improvements of the method aiming, for example, at the production of smooth, crack-free targets for nuclear physics applications. Constant current density electrolysis experiments were performed in organic media containing the model electrolyte Nd(NO3)3·6H2O. The process was investigated by considering influences of the electrolyte concentration (0.11, 0.22, 0.44 mM), the surface roughness of the deposition substrates (a few tens of nm), and the plating solvent (an isopropanol/isobutanol mixture, and N,N-dimethylformamide). The response of the process to changes of these parameters was monitored by recording cell potential curves and by characterizing the obtained deposits with γ-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By changing the solvent from isopropanol/isobutanol mixtures to N,N-dimethylformamide, we have succeeded in producing smooth, crack-free Nd targets.

Keywords

Thin layers Neodymium Molecular plating γ-ray spectroscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the staff of the TRIGA Mainz for performing the irradiations, and Dr. T. Lauer for performing the coating of the Si wafers. A. Vascon acknowledges financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Science and Education (BMBF) under Contract number 02NUK013E.

References

  1. 1.
    Parker W, Falk R (1962) Nucl Instrum Methods 16:355–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trautmann N, Folger H (1989) Nucl Instrum Methods A 282:102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eberhardt K, Schädel M, Schimpf E, Thörle P, Trautmann N (2004) Nucl Instrum Methods A 521:208–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sadi S, Paulenova A, Watson PR, Loveland W (2011) Nucl Instrum Methods A 655:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Watson PR, Loveland W, Zielinski PM, Gregorich KE, Nitsche H (2004) Nucl Instrum Methods B 226:543–548Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vascon A, Düllmann ChE, Eberhardt K, Kindler B, Lommel B, Runke J (2011) Nucl Instrum Methods A 655:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vascon A, Santi S, Isse AA, Reich T, Drebert J, Christ H, Düllmann ChE, Eberhardt K (2012) Nucl Instrum Methods A 696:180–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vascon A, Santi S, Isse AA, Kühle A, Reich T, Drebert J, Eberhardt K, Düllmann ChE (2013) Nucl Instrum Methods A 714:163–175Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Muilenberg GE (1979) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Physical Electronics Division, Eden PrairieGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lide DR (ed) (2006) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izutsu K (2002) Electrochemistry in nonaqueous solutions. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horcas R, Fernandez JM, Gomez-Rodriguez J, Colchero J, Gomez-Herrero AM, Baro W (2007) Rev Sci Instrum 78:013705-1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Vascon
    • 1
  • S. Santi
    • 2
  • A. A. Isse
    • 2
  • T. Reich
    • 1
  • J. Drebert
    • 1
  • H. Christ
    • 3
  • K. Eberhardt
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ch. E. Düllmann
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Nuclear ChemistryJohannes Gutenberg University MainzMainzGermany
  2. 2.Department of Chemical SciencesUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Physical ChemistryJohannes Gutenberg University MainzMainzGermany
  4. 4.SHE Chemistry DepartmentGSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbHDarmstadtGermany
  5. 5.SHE Chemistry Research SectionHelmholtz Institute MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations