Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 299, Issue 2, pp 1081–1084 | Cite as

Preparation of actinide targets for the synthesis of the heaviest elements

  • J. Runke
  • Ch. E. Düllmann
  • K. Eberhardt
  • P. A. Ellison
  • K. E. Gregorich
  • S. Hofmann
  • E. Jäger
  • B. Kindler
  • J. V. Kratz
  • J. Krier
  • B. Lommel
  • C. Mokry
  • H. Nitsche
  • J. B. Roberto
  • K. P. Rykaczewski
  • M. Schädel
  • P. Thörle-Pospiech
  • N. Trautmann
  • A. Yakushev
Article

Abstract

The heaviest elements are synthesized in heavy-ion induced hot fusion reactions with various actinide targets. Because the actinide material is often available only in very limited amounts, a deposition method with high yields (~90 %) is needed. We report on the production of 244Pu, 243Am, 248Cm, 249Bk, and 249Cf targets on thin Ti backings by molecular plating. Different chemical purification steps using ion chromatographic techniques were applied for the purification of 249Cf and 244Pu. The deposition procedure applied for the production of ~0.4–0.8 mg/cm2 thick targets is described. The deposition yield was determined either by α-particle or γ-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, neutron activation analysis has been applied in the case of 244Pu, 243Am, and 248Cm. Information about the spatial distribution and homogeneity of the target layer was obtained by radiographic imaging.

Keywords

Electrodeposition Molecular plating Actinides Targets Berkelium Californium 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for providing the 249Cf. Thanks are also due to Robert F. Fairchild II, Naomi E. Reeves, John A. Van Wart and LBNL’s entire Radiation Protection Group of the Environmental Health and Safety Division for their leadership and active support with the preparation and execution of the 249Cf shipment to Germany. For providing the 249Bk the authors thank the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also thank the Target Laboratory at GSI for providing the Ti-backing foils and the Mechanical Workshop of the Institut für Kernchemie in Mainz for the construction of the plating cells, and A. Vascon for providing Fig. 2.

References

  1. 1.
    YuTs Oganessian (2011) Radiochim Acta 99:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ellison PE et al (2010) Phys Rev Lett 105:182701-1–182701-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Düllmann ChE (2011) Radiochim Acta 99:515–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eberhardt K et al (2008) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 590:134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vascon A et al (2011) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 655:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vascon A et al (2012) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 696:180–191Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vascon A et al (2013) J Radioanal Nucl Chem (this issue)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liebe D et al (2008) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 590:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Düllmann ChE et al (2010) Phys Rev Lett 104:252701-1–252701-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gates JM et al (2011) Phys Rev C 83:054618-1–054618-17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yakushev A et al (2012) Inorg Chem (submitted)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hofmann S et al (2012) Eur Phys J A48:62–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Düllmann ChE et al (2012) GSI Sci Rep 2011, p 206. PHN-NUSTAR-SHE-02Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hofmann S et al (2012) GSI Sci. Rep. 2011, p 205. PHN-NUSTAR-SHE-02Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haba H et al (2006) RIKEN Accel Prog Rep 39:109Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andersson LL et al (2010) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 622:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Forsberg U et al (2012) Acta Phys Pol B 43:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jäger E et al (2013) J Radioanal Nucl Chem (this issue)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Runke
    • 1
  • Ch. E. Düllmann
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. Eberhardt
    • 2
    • 3
  • P. A. Ellison
    • 4
    • 5
  • K. E. Gregorich
    • 4
  • S. Hofmann
    • 1
    • 6
  • E. Jäger
    • 1
  • B. Kindler
    • 1
  • J. V. Kratz
    • 2
  • J. Krier
    • 1
  • B. Lommel
    • 1
  • C. Mokry
    • 2
  • H. Nitsche
    • 4
    • 5
  • J. B. Roberto
    • 7
  • K. P. Rykaczewski
    • 7
  • M. Schädel
    • 1
    • 8
  • P. Thörle-Pospiech
    • 2
  • N. Trautmann
    • 2
  • A. Yakushev
    • 1
  1. 1.GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbHDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Johannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzGermany
  3. 3.Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzGermany
  4. 4.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  5. 5.University of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  6. 6.Goethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany
  7. 7.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  8. 8.Japan Atomic Energy AgencyTokaiJapan

Personalised recommendations