Heterogeneous distribution of radiocesium in aerosols, soil and particulate matters emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: retention of micro-scale heterogeneity during the migration of radiocesium from the air into ground and river systems
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We analyzed 137Cs in aerosols, rock, soil and river suspended sediment collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Based on the results, we discuss the post-event behavior and transportation of radiocesium in the environment from the air into ground and river systems. First, radionuclides were emitted from the FDNPP as airborne ‘hot’ particles, which contained water-soluble fractions of radiocesium. Radiocesium was still present in a water-soluble fraction after deposition on the ground. Subsequent interaction of the ‘hot’ particles with water (e.g. rainfall) dissolved and strongly fixed the radiocesium on rock and soil particles, thus changing the radiocesium into insoluble forms. The distribution of ‘hot spots’ was possibly controlled by the initial position of deposition on the ground. Consequently, ‘hot spots’ were studded on the rock surface rather than being uniformly distributed. The distribution of radiocesium in river suspended particles was not homogeneous during water transportation, reflecting the heterogeneity of radiocesium in rock and soil. Leaching experiments demonstrated that radiocesium in rock, soil and river suspended sediment was fairly insoluble, showing that the adsorption reaction is irreversible. The micro-scale heterogeneous distribution of radiocesium in aerosols, soil and suspended particles was due to the presence of ‘hot’ particles in aerosols. Dissolution of radiocesium in the ‘hot’ particles in the aerosols and subsequent irreversible adsorption onto the soil particle complex are responsible for the preservation of the heterogeneity both in soil and in river suspended particles.
KeywordsFukushima Radiocesium Micro-scale Heterogeneity
The authors thank Y. Watanabe, A. Kadokura and M. Fujiwara for their help in the experiments. The aerosol filter samples were kindly provided by Kawasaki Municipal Research Institute for Environmental Protection. The EXAFS measurement has been performed with approvals of KEK (Proposal No. 2011G644 and 2011G197) and JASRI (Proposal No. 2011B1569). This work has been done in the FMWSE project (Fukushima Radiation Monitoring of Water, Soil and Entrainment) supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology in Japan).
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