Advertisement

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 295, Issue 2, pp 817–821 | Cite as

Natural radioactivity of bedrock bath instruments and hot spring instruments in Japan

  • Kazuki Iwaoka
  • Hiroyuki Tabe
  • Hidenori Yonehara
Article

Abstract

In Japan, bedrock bath instruments and hot spring instruments that contain natural radioactive nuclides are commercially available. In this study, such instruments containing natural radioactive nuclides, currently distributed in Japan, were collected and the radioactivity concentration of 238U series, 232Th series, and 40K in them was determined by gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers and general consumers handling the materials were estimated, revealing the radioactivity concentration of 238U series, 232Th series, and 40K to be lower than critical values given in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum effective doses to workers and general consumers were 210 and 6.1 μSv y−1, respectively. These values are lower than the intervention exemption level (1,000 μSv y1) given in ICRP Publ. 82.

Keywords

NORM Radioactivity concentration Dose estimation Natural radioactive nuclides 

References

  1. 1.
    International Commission of Radiological Protection (1991) Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1987) Radiation exposure of the U.S. population from consumer products and miscellaneous sources, NCRP report 95Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    European commission (1995) Study on consumer products containing radioactive substances in the EU Member States, RP 68Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    European commission (2007) Study on consumer products containing radioactive substances in the EU Member States, RP 146Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yosida M, Endou A, Satou S, Ohhata T, Watanabe M, Ohyama R, Furuya H (2005) Trans Atomic Energy Soc Jpn 4:213Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    European commission (2002) Practical use of the concepts of clearance and exemption (Part II), RP 12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirayama H, Namito Y, Bielajew AF, Wilderman SJ, Nelson WR (2005) The EGS5 code system. SLAC-R-730 and KEK Report 2005–8Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    International Commission of Radiological Protection (1997) Conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection against external radiation, ICRP Publication 74Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    International Atomic Energy Agency (2004) Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance, RS-G-1.7Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Commission of Radiological Protection (1999) Protection of the public in situations of prolonged radiation exposure, ICRP Publication 82Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuki Iwaoka
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Tabe
    • 1
  • Hidenori Yonehara
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Radiation ProtectionNational Institute of Radiological SciencesChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations