210Pb and 210Po radionuclides in the urban air of Lodz, Poland

Article

Abstract

The concentration of two important radionuclides: 210Pb and its decay product 210Po in the urban air in the center of the Polish city of Lodz were measured during the winter and spring seasons of 2008–2009. Urban airborne particulate matter was collected using two methods: an Anderson 9-stage impactor, and a high-volume aerosol sampler type ASS500 working in the frames of the aerosol sampling network in Poland, established for radionuclide monitoring. Average concentrations for 10 months sampling period for 210Pb and 210Po were 0.556 and 0.067 mBq/m3, respectively. However remarkable fluctuations due to meteorological condition were observed: from 0.010 to 0.431 mBq/m3 for 210Po and from 0.167 to 1.847 mBq/m3 for 210Pb. The highest concentrations, almost 60% of the total activities, of both radionuclides were found in the first two fine aerosol fractions with particle diameters below 0.36 μm. The aerosol residence times calculated from the 210Po/210Pb ratio ranged from 7 to 120 days.

Keywords

210Pb and 210Po radionuclides Urban air 

References

  1. 1.
    Gaggeler HW (1995) Radiactivity in the atmosphere. Radiochim Acta 70(71):345–353Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Burton WM, Stewart NG (1960) Uses of long-lived radioactivity as an atmospheric tracer. Nature 186:584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marley NA, Gaffney JS, Drayton PJ, Cunningham MM, Orlandini KA, Paode R (2000) Measurement of 210Pb, 210Po and 210Bi in size-fractioned atmospheric aerosols: an estimate of fine-aerosol residence times. Aerosol Sci Technol 32(1):569–583Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baskaran M, Shaw GE (2001) Residence time of haze aerosols using the concentrations and activity ratios of 210Po, 210Pb, 7Be. Aerosol Sci 32:443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wallner G, Ayromlou S (2002) Local variations of atmospheric 222Rn and 210Pb concentrations in Badgastein (Austria). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 253(3):505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Duenas C, Fernandez MC, Carretero J, Liger E, Canete S (2004) Long-term variation of the concentrations of long-lived Rn descendants and cosmogenic 7Be and determination of the MRT of aerosols. Atmos Environ 38:1291–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gaffney JS, Marley NA, Cunningham MM (2004) Natural radionuclides in fine aerosols in the Pittsburgh area. Atmos Environ 38:3191–3200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daish SR, Dale AA, Dale CJ, May R, Rowe JE (2005) The temporal variations of 7Be, 210Pb, and 210Po in air in England. J Environ Radioact 84:457–4679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Papastefanou C (2006) Residence time of tropospheric aerosols in association with radioactive nuclides. App Radiat Isotopes 64:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ioannidou A, Manolopoulu M, Papastefanou C (2005) Temporal changes of 7Be and 210Pb concentrations in surface air temperate latitudes (40° N). App Radiat Isotopes 63:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vecchi R, Marcazzan G, Valli G (2005) Seasonal variation of 210Pb activity concentration in outdoor air of Milan (Italy). J Environ Radioact 82:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    UNSCEAR (1988) Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lambert G (1982) Volcanic output of long-lived radon daughters. J Geophys Res 87:11103–11108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Masri MS, Al-Karfan K, Khalili H, Hassan M (2006) Speciation of 210Po and 210Pb in air particulates determined by sequential extraction. J Environ Radioact 91(1-2):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papastefanou C, Stoulos S, Ioannidou A, Manolopoulou M (2006) The application of phosphogypsum in agriculture and the radiological impact. J Environ Radioact 89:188–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nho EY, Ardouin B, Le Cloarec MF, Ramonet M (1996) Origins of 210Po in the atmosphere at Lamoto, Ivory Coast: biomass burning and Saharan dust. Atmos Environ 30(22):3705–3714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeevaert Th, Sweeck L, Vanmarcke H (2006) The radiological impact from airborne routine discharges of a modern coal-fired power plant. J Environ Radioact 85:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nowina-Konopka M (1993) Radiological hazard from coal-fired plants in Poland. Radiat Prot Dosim 46:171–180Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weng Y, Chu TC (1992) Concentration of radionuclides of size fractionated fly ash emissions from a thermal power plant using Taiwan coal. J Radiat Res 33:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bem H, Olszewski M, Bysiek M, Gluba T (2004) Evaluation of the coal combustion input to the 226Ra ground-level air concentration in the Lodz city, Poland. Nukleonika 49(4):167–171Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Skrzypski J (1999) The input of low- and medium-level energetic emission in atmospheric pollution in Lodz. Elaboration, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (In Polish)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    LWEPI (2008) Annual report on the state of environment in 2007 in Lodz Voivodeship. Lodz Voivodeship Environmental Protection Inspectorate, Lodz (In Polish)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bysiek M, Biernacka M, Lipiński P (2001) Radioactivity of ground level air in Poland in 1998–1999. Results from ASS-station network. Nukleonika 46(4):171–173Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Currie LA (1968) Limits for qualitative detection and quantitative determination. Anal Chem 40(3):586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Murray MK, Chung-Kyu K, Paul M (2007) Determination of 210Po in environmental samples. A review of analytical methodology. Appl Radiat Isot 65(3):267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoshimori M (2005) Berylium-7 radionuclide as a tracer of vertical air mass transport in the troposphere. Adv Space Res 36(5):828–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Winkler R (1997) Seasonal variation of natural and artificial radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air. Naturwissenschaften 84:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ahmed AA, Mohamed A, Ali AE, Barakat A, Abd El-Hady M, El-Hussein A (2004) Seasonal variations of aerosol residence time in the lower atmospheric boundary layer. J Environ Radioact 77:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kownacka L (2002) Vertical distributions of beryllium-7 and lead-210 in the tropospheric and lower stratospheric air. Nukleonika 47:79–82Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bem H, Krzemińska M, Górecka H (2003) Calculation of the trace elements emission on the basis of their concentration size distribution in fly ashes. Annals Polish Chem Soc 2(2):765–769Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krzemińska–Flowers M, Bem H, Górecka H (2005) Trace metals concentration in size-fractioned urban air particulate matter in Lodz, Poland I. Seasonal and site fluctuations. Polish J Environ Study 15(5):759–767Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lough G, Schauer J, Park J, Shafer M, Deminter J, Weinstain J (2005) Emission of metals associated with motor vehicle roadways. Environ Sci Technol 39:826–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Almeida SM, Pio CA, Freitas MC, Reis MA, Trancoso MA (2005) Source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in a sub-urban area at the Western European Coast. Atmos Environ 39:3127–3138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith-Briggs JL (1984) Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. Nucl Instr Meth Phys Res 223:590–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    UNSCEAR (2000) Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, vol 1. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena Długosz
    • 1
  • Paweł Grabowski
    • 1
  • Henryk Bem
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTechnical University of LodzŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations