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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry

, Volume 282, Issue 3, pp 1019–1026 | Cite as

Frequency distribution, isotopic composition and physical characterization of plutonium-bearing particles from the Fig-Quince zone on Runit Island, Enewetak Atoll

  • Terry F. Hamilton
  • Jussi Jernströem
  • Roger E. Martinelli
  • Steven R. Kehl
  • Mats Eriksson
  • Ross W. Williams
  • Marek Bielewski
  • Ariel N. Rivers
  • Thomas A. Brown
  • Scott J. Tumey
  • Maria Betti
Article

Abstract

Runit Island on Enewetak Atoll was very heavily impacted by the U.S. nuclear testing campaign in the northern Marshall Islands (1946–58). The primary source of contamination on Runit Island was the 1958 Quince safety test where a large quantity of device plutonium (Pu) was scattered over the area near the GZ. A second low-yield device was detonated on the same site 10 days later, further disturbing the soil and leaving behind a very heterogeneous pattern of contamination including milligram-size particles of plutonium. A limited cleanup of the Fig-Quince zone was carried out in 1979. During this period, the effectiveness of the cleanup operations was primarily evaluated on the basis of bulk soil concentration data with little consideration given to the heterogeneity and long-term material-, biological-, and environmental-specific impacts of residual high activity (hot) particle contamination. The aim of the present study was twofold; (i) to characterize the levels and distribution of residual contamination in the Fig-Quince zone, and (ii) to develop pertinent data on the frequency distribution, elemental and isotopic composition, and physico-chemical properties of hot particles isolated from surface soils from Fig-Quince with a view towards providing recommendations on the future management and possible cleanup of the site. Today, Runit Island remains under an administrative quarantine.

Keywords

Radioactive particles 239Pu 240Pu 241Pu 242Pu 244Pu 241Am Runit Island Enewetak Atoll Marshall Islands Gamma-spectrometry SR-μ-XRF SEM-EDX SIMS MCICP-MS AMS Soil particle size fractionation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry F. Hamilton
    • 1
  • Jussi Jernströem
    • 2
  • Roger E. Martinelli
    • 1
  • Steven R. Kehl
    • 1
  • Mats Eriksson
    • 3
  • Ross W. Williams
    • 4
  • Marek Bielewski
    • 5
  • Ariel N. Rivers
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Brown
    • 1
  • Scott J. Tumey
    • 1
  • Maria Betti
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Accelerator Mass SpectrometryLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Radiation Research Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable EnergyTechnical University of Denmark (DTU)RoskildeDenmark
  3. 3.IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL)International Atomic Energy AgencyMonaco CedexMonaco
  4. 4.Chemical Sciences DivisionLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  5. 5.Institute for Transuranium Elements, EC DG JRCKarlsruheGermany

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