Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy
Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies.
KeywordsIron Human disorders Nuclear microprobe TXRF
The work was carried out under SPDV (Portuguese Society of Dermatology and Venereology) and IAEA RC 302-F1.20.19-POR-13262 research contracts. The reference group for skin was established under the research contract EC/QLK4-CT-2002-02678.
- 1.Allen, K.J., Gurrin, L.C., Constantine, C.C., Osborne, N.J., Delatycki, M.B., Nicoll, A.J., McLaren, C.E., Bahlo, M., Nisselle, A.E., Vulpe, C.D., Anderson, G.J., Southey, M.C., Giles, G.G., English, D.R., Hopper, J.L., Olynyk, J.K., Powell, L.W., Gertig, D.M.: Iron-overload related disease in HFE hereditary hemochromatosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 358, 221–230 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Aguer, P., Alves, L.C., Barberet, Ph., Gontier, E., Incerti, S., Michelet-Habchi, C., Kertész, Zs., Kiss, A.Z., Moretto, P., Pallon, J., Pinheiro, T., Surlève-Bazeille, J.E., Szikszai, Z., Veríssimo, A., Ynsa, M.D.: Skin morphology and layer identification using different STIM geometries. Nucl. Instr. Methods Res. B 231, 292–299 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Pinheiro, T., Ynsa, M.D., Alves, L.C.: Imaging biological structures with proton microprobe. In: Mendez-Vilas, A., Diaz, J. (eds.) Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy. Microscopy Series N°3, vol. 1, p. 237. Formatex, Badajoz (2007)Google Scholar
- 12.Versieck, J., Vanballenberghe, L., De Kesel, A., Hoste, J., Wallaeys, B., Vandenhaute, J., Baeck, N., Steyaert, H., Byrne, A.R., Sunderman Jr, F.W.: Certification of a second-generation biological reference material (freeze-dried human serum) for trace element determinations. Anal. Chim. Acta 204, 63–75 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Van Espen, P., Janssens, K., Swentens, I.: AXIL X-ray Analysis Software-Users Manual. Canberra Packard, Benelux (1986)Google Scholar