Trace elemental analysis of rice grown in two regions of Tanzania

  • N. K. Mohammed
  • N. M. Spyrou


The concentrations of elements in rice, locally cultivated in two regions of Tanzania (Mbeya and Morogoro), were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Cu and Br, and Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) for P, Fe and Zn. There were no statistical differences in concentrations of the essential elements Fe, Zn, Cu and P in rice from both regions. There was also no significant correlation between grain P and Fe content, suggesting the possibility of growing Tanzanian rice with low phytic acid and high Fe contents.


Trace element Rice INAA PIXE Phytic acid 



This research project has been supported by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme through the Key Action “Strengthening the European Research Area, Research Infrastructures” (Contract no RII3-CT-2003-505925). The authors would also like to acknowledge the Ford Foundation and the International Programme in Physical Sciences of the University of Uppsala (IPPS) for financial assistance, and the staff of NPI Rez, Czech Republic and University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre for their technical advise and support.


  1. 1.
    Shankar, H., Prasad, A.S.: Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68, 516–521 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim, P.W., Sun, Z.Y.J., Blacklow, S.C., Wagner, G., Eck, M.J.: A zinc clasp structure Tethers Lck to T-cell co receptors CD4 and CD8. Science 301, 1725–1728 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahluwalia, N., Sun, J.Q., Krause, D., Mastro, A., Handte, G.: Immune function is impaired in iron-deficient, homebound older women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79, 516–521 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hurrell, R.F., Juillerat, M.A., Reddy, M.B., Lynch, S.R., Dassenko, S.A., Cook, J.D.: Soy protein, phytate and iron absorption in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 573–578 (1992)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lonnerdal, B.: Phytic acid-trace element (Zn, Cu, Mn) interaction. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 37, 749–758 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    United Republic Of Tanzania, Socio-economic profile. Joint publications by the Planning Commission and Regional commissioner’s offices (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Randa, Z., Vobecky, M., Kuncir, J., Benada, J.: Multielement standards in routine reactor neutron-activation analysis. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 46, 95–107 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ndario-Ndossi, J.P., Gram, G.: Pesticide residue in table-ready foods in Tanzania. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 15, 143–149 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bauernfeind, J.C., De Ritter E.: Foods considered for nutrient addition: cereal grain products. In: Bauernfeind, J.C., Lahvis, G. (eds.) Nutrient Addition to Foods, Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    FAO: Rice in human nutrition, FAO and IRRI, Rome, Italy (1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jibiri, N.N., Farai, I.P., Alausa, S.K.: Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. J. Environ. Radioact. 94, 31–40 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations