Advertisement

Journal of Polymer Research

, 26:272 | Cite as

Recovery of 1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene from wastewater by polymeric membranes via pervaporation process

  • Fatemeh Rajaee Gazic
  • Ehsan SaljoughiEmail author
  • Seyed Mahmoud Mousavi
ORIGINAL PAPER
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

In the present study for the first time, recovery of 1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene from aqueous solution was investigated by pervaporation process with polymeric membranes containing ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly vinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and poly ether-block-amide (PEBA). After preparation of membranes by solution casting method, the membranes were applied in pervaporation experiments at ambient temperature to determine several parameters such as flux, separation factor and pervaporation separation index (PSI). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle, mechanical resistance and degree of swelling analyses were performed to characterize the prepared membranes. SEM images showed a dense and symmetrical morphology in regard to the prepared membranes. Results of contact angle analysis indicated that PDMS and EPDM membranes were completely hydrophobic in comparison with the other prepared membranes. Percent of swelling for all membranes was rather low and all of them swelled lower than 3.5%; however, swelling value for PVDF membrane was approximately negligible (0.3%). EPDM membrane with PSI value of of 653 kg/m2.h and separation factor of 3558, showed a superior performance in pervaporation process compared to the other prepared membranes; however, this membrane presented lower mechanical strength than the other membranes. PVDF membrane showed better results in terms of mechanical strength compared to the other membranes. Considering pervaporation separation index of 248 kg/m2.h and separation factor of 480, which were better than that of PDMS and PEBA membranes, PVDF showed poor performance in PV process compared with EPDM membrane. According to the higher mechanical strength and slight willingness of PVDF membrane to swelling in contact with aqueous feed, performance enhancement of this membrane in the pervaporation process can greatly surpass its position in removing 1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene from contaminated water.

Keywords

Recovery 1-ethyl-2-methylbenzene Polymeric membranes Pervaporation 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Shekarian E, Saljoughi E, Naderi A (2013) Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/IGEPAL blend asymmetric membranes: preparation, morphology, and performance. J Polym Res 20(6):162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ebneyamini A, Azimi H, Thibault J, Tezel FH (2018) Description of butanol aqueous solution transport through commercial PDMS pervaporation membrane using extended Maxwell–Stefan model. Sep Sci Technol:1–17Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liao Y-L, Hu C-C, Lai J-Y, Liu Y-L (2017) Crosslinked polybenzoxazine based membrane exhibiting in-situ self-promoted separation performance for pervaporation dehydration on isopropanol aqueous solutions. J Membr Sci 531:10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shao P, Huang R (2007) Polymeric membrane pervaporation. J Membr Sci 287(2):162–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dudek G, Krasowska M, Turczyn R, Gnus M, Strzelewicz A (2017) Structure, morphology and separation efficiency of hybrid Alg/Fe3O4 membranes in pervaporative dehydration of ethanol. Sep Purif Technol 182:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhou H, Zhang J, Wan Y, Jin W (2017) Fabrication of high silicalite-1 content filled PDMS thin composite pervaporation membrane for the separation of ethanol from aqueous solutions. J Membr Sci 524:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu S, Ren W, Cai D, Hughes TC, Qin P, Tan T (2017) A mixed matrix membrane for butanol pervaporation based on micron-sized silicalite-1 as macro-crosslinkers. J Membr Sci 533:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hua D, Chung T-S (2015) Universal surface modification by aldehydes on polymeric membranes for isopropanol dehydration via pervaporation. J Membr Sci 492:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Najafi M, Mousavi SM, Saljoughi E (2016) Preparation and characterization of poly (ether block amide)/graphene membrane for recovery of isopropanol from aqueous solution via pervaporation. Polym Compos 39(7): 2259-2267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shaban M, AbdAllah H, Said L, Ahmed AM (2019) Water desalination and dyes separation from industrial wastewater by PES/TiO 2 NTs mixed matrix membranes. J Polym Res 26(8):181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    James KJ, Stack MA (1997) Rapid determination of volatile organic compounds in environmentally hazardous wastewaters using solid phase microextraction. Fresenius J Anal Chem 358(7–8):833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Canneaux S, Vandeputte R, Hammaecher C, Louis F, Ribaucour M (2011) Thermochemical data and Additivity group values for ten species of O-xylene low-temperature oxidation mechanism. J Phys Chem A 116(1):592–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bell J, Melcer H, Monteith H, Osinga I, Steel P (1993) Stripping of volatile organic compounds at full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Environ Res 65(6):708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen YC, Wu HF (2009) Revolving hollow fiber–liquid phase microextraction coupled to GC/MS using electron ionization for quantification of five aromatic hydrocarbon isomers. J Sep Sci 32(17):3013–3019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Potter TL (1996) Analysis of petroleum-contaminated water by GC/FID with direct aqueous injection. Groundwater Monit Remed 16(3):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li D, Yao J, Sun H, Liu B, van Agtmaal S, Feng C (2018) Recycling of phenol from aqueous solutions by pervaporation with ZSM-5/PDMS/PVDF hollow fiber composite membrane. Appl Surf Sci 427:288–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Soloukipour S, Saljoughi E, Mousavi SM, Pourafshari Chenar M (2017) PEBA/PVDF blend pervaporation membranes: preparation and performance. Polym Adv Technol 28(1):113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sampranpiboon P, Jiraratananon R, Uttapap D, Feng X, Huang R (2000) Pervaporation separation of ethyl butyrate and isopropanol with polyether block amide (PEBA) membranes. J Membr Sci 173(1):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pereira C, Habert A, Nobrega R, Borges C (1998) New insights in the removal of diluted volatile organic compounds from dilute aqueous solution by pervaporation process. J Membr Sci 138(2):227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang R, Moon G, Pal R (2002) Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) membranes for the pervaporation separation of aroma compound from water. Ind Eng Chem Res 41(3):531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langari S, Saljoughi E, Mousavi SM (2018) Chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/amino functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube pervaporation membranes: synthesis, characterization, and performance. Polym Adv Technol 29(1):84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Afsar F, Saljoughi E, Mousavi SM (2018) Poly (caprolactone)/poly (ethylene glycol) pervaporation blend membranes: synthesis, characterization, and performance. Polym Adv Technol 29(9):2467–2476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li NN, Fane AG, Ho WW, Matsuura T (2011) Advanced membrane technology and applications. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khademeh Molavi F, Soltani S, Naderi G, Bagheri R (2016) Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube on mechanical and rheological properties of silane modified EPDM rubber. Polyolefins J 3(2):69–77Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Menard KP (1999) Dynamic mechanical analysis. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Balani, K., Verma, V., Agarwal, A., and Narayan, R., A Materials Science and Engineering Perspective. 2015: Wiley Online LibraryGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Böddeker KW (1990) Terminology in pervaporation. J Membr Sci 51(3):259–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Singha NR, Das P, Ray SK (2013) Recovery of pyridine from water by pervaporation using filled and crosslinked EPDM membranes. J Ind Eng Chem 19(6):2034–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peng M, Vane LM, Liu SX (2003) Recent advances in VOCs removal from water by pervaporation. J Hazard Mater 98(1):69–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qing-Lin L, Xiao J (2004) Silicalite Filled poly(siloxane imide) membranes for removal of VOCs from water by pervaporation. J Membr Sci 230(1):121–129Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pattabhi Ramaiah K, Satyasri D, Sridhar S, Krishnaiah A (2013) Removal of hazardous chlorinated VOCs from aqueous solutions using novel ZSM-5 loaded PDMS/PVDF composite membrane consisting of three hydrophobic layers. J Hazard Mater 261:362–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Higuchi A, Yoon B-O, Asano T, Nakaegawa K, Miki S, Hara M, He Z, Pinnau I (2002) Separation of endocrine disruptors from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. J Membr Sci 198(2):311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Djebbar MK, Nguyen Q, Clement R, Germain Y (1998) Pervaporation of aqueous ester solutions through hydrophobic poly (ether-block-amide) copolymer membranes. J Membr Sci 146(1):125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Choudhari SK, Cerrone F, Woods T, Joyce K, O’Flaherty V, O’Connor K, Babu R (2015) Pervaporation separation of butyric acid from aqueous and anaerobic digestion (AD) solutions using PEBA based composite membranes. J Ind Eng Chem 23:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Polymer Society, Taipei 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatemeh Rajaee Gazic
    • 1
  • Ehsan Saljoughi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seyed Mahmoud Mousavi
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations