Journal of Polymer Research

, 26:45 | Cite as

Investigation of non-adhesive behaviour of waterborne polyurethane dispersions

  • Nadia AkramEmail author
  • Khalid Mahmood Zia
  • Muhammad Saeed
  • Muhammad Usman
  • Waheed Gul Khan
  • Muhammad Arshad Bashir


The current work probe the thermo-mechanical defects responsible for the non-adhesive behaviour of waterborne polyurethane dispersions (PUDs). A sequence of composition of PUDs has been developed by using blended macrodiols of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). The urethane linkages have been developed by the use of 1,6 hexane diisocyanate (HDI). The polymer contents synthesized by prepolymer method have been dispersed in deionized water to develop ecofriendly dispersions. The dispersions were subjected to probe tack analysis to determine the extent of adhesiveness. The adhesive properties evaluated from probe tack curve show tack adhesion energy from 10.5 to 42. 5 J-m-2. The DMA analysis revealed high storage modulus up to 1.42 MPa for PUD films. The adhesive properties evaluated by the consideration, of the ratio of loss tangent, to the storage modulus (tanδ / E′) for comparison resulted in the values from 0.15 -0.71 MPa-1. The Tg ranges from ̶ 65 °C to ̶ 57 °C. The composition of blended macrodiols of high molecular weight HTPB results in tack less rigid films of PUDs.

Graphical Abstract

Key words

Dispersion Adhesives Blended macrodiols Viscoelasticity Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 



We highly acknowledge Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the grant to N.A. to execute this project. The authors also acknowledge the assistance of Prof JL. Keddie, technical assistance from Dr. Robert Gurney and Mrs.Violeta Doukova at the University of Surrey, UK.


  1. 1.
    Guo L, Huang S, Qu J (2018) Synthesis and properties of high-functionality hydroxyl-terminated polyurethane dispersions. Prog Org Coat 119:214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Si HY, Liu H, Shang SB, Song J, Liao SL, Wang D, Song ZQ (2016) Preparation and properties of maleopimaric acid-based polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating. Prog Org Coat 90:309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu F, Qian BR, Hu Z, Chen WD, Zhuang ZY, Zhu BY, Zhang HQ, Zhu K (2013) A novel route to emulsifier-free, waterborne hydroxyl functional polyacrylate with low VOC level and its application in 2K-WPU coatings. J Macromol Sci A 50:555–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pardoa JI, Suna P, Benthem RATM, Estevesa ACC (2018) Design of self-dispersible charged-polymer building blocks for waterborne polyurethane dispersions. Eur Polym J 101:324–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mishra V, Desai J, Patel I K (2018) (UV/Oxidative) dual curing polyurethane dispersion from cardanol basedpolyol: Synthesis and characterization Industrial Crops & Products. 11:165–178.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alvarez GA, Fuensant M, Orozco VH, Giraldo LF, Martín-Martínez JM (2018) Hybrid waterborne polyurethane/acrylate dispersion synthesized with bisphenol A-glicidylmethacrylate (Bis-GMA) grafting agent. Prog Org Coat 118:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Akram N, Zia KM, Saeed M, Mansha A, Khan WG (2018) Morphological studies of polyurethane based pressure sensitive adhesives by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. J Polym Res 25(194):1591-1596Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lewandowski K, Krepski LR, Mickus DE, Roberts RR, Heilmann SM, Larson WK, Purgett MD, Koecher SD, Johnson SA, Mcgurran JR, Chris SV, Pather KA, Thakur M (2002) Synthesis and Properties of Waterborne Self-Crosslinkable Sulfo-urethane Silanol Dispersions. J Polym Sci: Part A: PolymChem 40:3037–3045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lei Wa FC, Zhou X, Li J, Yang R, Zhang Z, Liuc D (2017) Morphology and thermal properties of polyurethane elastomer based on representative structural chain extenders. J Mat Sci Technol 33:1424–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shah SAA, Imran M, Lian Q, Shehzad FQ, Athir N, Zhang J, Cheng J (2018) Curcumin incorporated polyurethane urea elastomers with tunable thermomechanical properties. React Function Polym 128:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathew A, Kurmvanshi S, Mohanty S, Nayak SK (2018) Sustainable production of polyurethane from castor oil, functionalized with epoxy- and hydroxyl-terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane) for biomedical applications. J Mater Sci 53(5):3119–3130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gao N, Zhang Z, Dong Q (2013) Preparation and Properties of Two-Component and Double-Crosslinking Waterborne Polyurethane-Acrylic Dispersions. Open J Org Polym Mater 3:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kwak YS, Kim HD, Lee JB (2005) Comparison of the properties of waterborne polyurethane-ureas containing different triblock glycols for water vapor permeable coatings. Col Polym Sci 283:880–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pant CS, Santosh MS, Banerjee SSB, Khanna PK (2013) Single Step Synthesis of Nitro-Functionalized Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene. Propellants Explos Pyrotech 35:1–6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaddam SK, Palanisamy A (2018) Effect of counterion on the properties of anionic waterborne polyurethane dispersions developed from cottonseed oil based polyol. J Polym Res 25(186).
  16. 16.
    Shankar RM, Roy TK, Jana T (2009) Terminal Functionalized Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene: An Energetic Binder for Propellant. J Appl Polym Sci 114:732–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vilar W, Akcelrud L (1995) Effect of HTPB structure on prepolymer characteristics and on mechanical properties of polybutadiene-based polyurethanes. Polym Bull 35:635–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Awaja F, Gilbert M, Kelly G, Fox B, Pigram P (2009) Adhesion of polymers. J Prog Polym Sci 34:948–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gerberich WW, Cordil MJ (2006) Physics of adhesion. Rep Prog Phys 69:2157–2203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Creton C, Hooker J, Shull RK (2001) Bulk and Interfacial Contributions to the Debonding Mechanisms of Soft Adhesives: Extension to Large Strains. Langmuir 17:4948–4954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yin W, Zeng X, Li H, Li X, Ren B, Tong Z (2013) Steady rheological behaviors of UV-curable waterborne hyperbranched polyurethane acrylate dispersions. J Coat Technol Res 10:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Agirre A, Nase J, Degrandi E, Creton C, Asua JM (2010) Improving Adhesion of Acrylic Waterborne PSAs to Low Surface Energy Materials: Introduction of Stearyl Acrylate. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 48:5030–5039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blum W, Eisenlohr P (2017) Deformation Strength of Nanocrystalline Thin Films. J Mat Sci Technol 33:718–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jhon YK, Cheong IW, Kim JH (2001) Chain extension study of aqueous polyurethane dispersions. Coll Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 179:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bai CY, Zhang XY, Dai JB, Zhang CY (2007) Water resistance of the membranes for UV curable waterborne polyurethane dispersions. Prog Org Coat 59:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ayres E, Ore ‘Fice RL, Yoshid MI (2007) Phase morphology of hydrolysable polyurethanes derived from aqueous dispersions. Eur Polym J 43:3510–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Flickinger GL, Dairanieh IS, Zukoski CF (1999) The rheology of aqueous polyurethane dispersions. J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 87:283–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li KH, Hee LY, Soo KJ, Cheol PC, Hyun P, Hwan CH, Do KH (2016) Preparation and properties of crosslinkable waterborne polyurethane and polyurethane-acrylic hybrid emulsions and their crosslinked polymers. J Polym Res 23:240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akram N, Gurney RS, Zuber M, Ishaq M, Keddie JL (2013) Influence of Polyol molecular weight and type on the tack and peel properties of waterborne polyurethane pressure-sensitive adhesives. Macromol React Eng 7:493–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang L, Shen Y, Lai X, Li Z, Liu M (2011) Synthesis and properties of crosslinked waterborne polyurethane. J Polym Res 18(3):469–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Courtois J, Baroudi I, Nouvel N, Degrandi E, Pensec S, Ducouret G, Chane´ C, Bouteiller L, Creton C (2010) Supramolecular Soft Adhesive Materials. Adv Funct Mater. 20:1803–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Akram N, Zia KM, Saeed M, Usman M, Khan WG (2019) Role of isophorone diisocyanate in the optimization of adhesion tendency of polyurethane pressure sensitive adhesives. J Appl Polym Sci 135:1–9Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Akram N, Zia KM, Saeed M, Usman M, Saleem S (2018) Impact of macrodiols on the adhesion strength of polyurethane pressure-sensitive adhesives. J App Polym Sci 135:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Polymer Society, Taipei 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Industrial Control SystemsRawalpindiPakistan

Personalised recommendations