Green synthesis and application of nanomagnetic molecularly imprinted polymerfor fast solid-phase extraction of brilliant blue FCF from real samples

  • Naghmeh Arabzadeh
  • Reza Akbarzadeh
  • Ali MohammadiEmail author
  • Maher Darwish


In this research, a new nanomagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (nanoMMIP) of brilliant blue FCF (BB) with high-efficiency and nanomagnetic non-imprinted polymer (nanoMNIP) were synthesized by a simple method in water medium as a green solvent. Acryl amide and N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide were used as the functional monomer andcross linking agent, respectively. The synthesized nanoMMIP and nano MNIP were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and Fouriertransforminfrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The nano MMIP,as a selective sorbent,was used to extract BB from real samples. The effect of pH, time and BB concentrationin addition toadsorption isothermswere studied. The imprinting-induced extraction was confirmed by determination of recovery values for nano MNIP (37%) and nano MMIP (90%). The maximum binding capacity of nano MMIP for this template was 3.25 mg/g.


Nanomagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers Brilliant blue FCF Solid- phase extraction Green synthesis 



The authors wish to thank Tehran University of Medical Sciences for the financial and instrumental support of this research.


  1. 1.
    Alves SP, Brum DM, de Andrade ÉCB, Netto ADP (2008) Determination of synthetic dyes in selected foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. Food Chem 107(1):489–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsai C-F, Kuo C-H, Shih DY-C (2015) Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Food Drug Anal 23(3):453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amchova P, Kotolova H, Ruda-Kucerova J (2015) Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 73(3):914–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sabnis RW (2010) Handbook of biological dyes and stains: synthesis and industrial applications. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta V, Mittal A, Krishnan L, Mittal J (2006) Adsorption treatment and recovery of the hazardous dye, Brilliant Blue FCF, over bottom ash and de-oiled soya. J Colloid Interface Sci 293(1):16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen Y-H, Tseng C-P, How S-C, Lo C-H, Chou W-L, Wang SS-S (2016) Amyloid fibrillogenesis of lysozyme is suppressed by a food additive brilliant blue FCF. Colloids Surf 142:351–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thomas OE, Adegoke OA (2015) Toxicity of food colours and additives: a review. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 9(36):900–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aguilar F, Dusemund B, Galtier P, Gilbert J, Gott D, Grilli S, Gürtler R, König J, Lambré C, Larsen J (2010) Scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown FK (E 154) as a food additive. EFSA J 8:1853–1889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borzelleca J, Depukat K, Hallagan J (1990) Lifetime toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C blue No. 1 (Brilliant blue FCF) in rats and mice. Food Chem Toxicol 28(4):221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Capitán-Vallvey L, Iglesias NN, de Orbe Payá I, Castañeda RA (1996) Simultaneous determination of quinoline yellow and brilliant blue FCF in cosmetics by solid-phase spectrophotometry. Talanta 43(9):1457–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Minioti KS, Sakellariou CF, Thomaidis NS (2007) Determination of 13 synthetic food colorants in water-soluble foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector. Anal Chim Acta 583(1):103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ma M, Luo X, Chen B, Su S, Yao S (2006) Simultaneous determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants in foodstuff by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1103(1):170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pourreza N, Ghomi M (2011) Simultaneous cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carmoisine and brilliant blue FCF in food samples. Talanta 84(1):240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fraige K, Assuncao NA, de Souza Pinto R, Carrilho E (2009) Analytical assessment of a home made capillary electrophoresis equipment with linear charge coupled device for visible light absorption detection in the determination of food dyes. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Tech 32(13):1862–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang HY, Chuang CL, Chiu CW, Chung MC (2005) Determination of food colorants by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. Electrophoresis 26(4–5):867–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Florian M, Yamanaka H, Carneiro P, Zanoni MVB (2002) Determination of brilliant blue FCF in the presence and absence of erythrosine and quinoline yellow food colours by cathodic stripping voltammetry. Food Addit Contam 19(9):803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sumiko Tsuji YA, Umino Y, Nishi M, Nakanishi T, Tonogai Y (2001) Structural determination of the subsidiary colors in food blue No. 1 (brilliant blue FCF) aluminum lake detected by paper chromatography. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 42(4):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shiri S, Khezeli T, Lotfi S, Shiri S (2012) Aqueous two-phase systems: a new approach for the determination of brilliant blue FCF in water and food. J Chemistry 2013:6–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komjarova I, Blust R (2006) Comparison of liquid–liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and co-precipitation preconcentration methods for the determination of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in seawater. Anal Chim Acta 576(2):221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Souza-Silva ÉA, Jiang R, Rodríguez-Lafuente A, Gionfriddo E, Pawliszyn J (2015) A critical review of the state of the art of solid-phase microextraction of complex matrices I. Environmental analysis. TrAC Anal Chem 71:224–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spietelun A, Marcinkowski Ł, de la Guardia M, Namieśnik J (2014) Green aspects, developments and perspectives of liquid phase microextraction techniques. Talanta 119:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Khadem M, Shahtaheri S, Golbabaei F, Rahimi Foroushani A (2014) Solid phase extraction using XAD-4 resin to evaluate the trace cadmium in hair and nail samples of metal industry workers. Iran Occu Health 11(5):10–19 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marcinkowska A, Legan M, Jezierska J (2013) Molecularly imprinted polymeric Cu (II) catalysts with modified active centres mimicking oxidation enzymes. J Polym Sci 20:317–321 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parisi O, Cirillo G, Curcio M (2010) Surface modification of molecularly imprinted polymers for improved template recognition in water media. J Polym Res 17:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lee S, Doong R (2016) Design of size-tunable molecularly imprinted polymer for selective adsorption of pharmaceuticals and biomolecules. J Biosens Bioelectron 7:228–235Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Okutucu B, Akkaya A, Pazarlioglu NK (2010) Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 40(4):366–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mirzajani R, Bagheban M (2016) Simultaneous preconcentration and determination of malachite green and fuchsine dyes in seafood and environmental water samples using nano-alumina-based molecular imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction. Inter J Environ Anal Chem 96(6):576–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Arabzadeh N, Khosravi A, Mohammadi A, Mahmoodi NM (2016) Enhanced photodegradation of hazardous tartrazine by composite of nanomolecularly imprinted polymer-nanophotocatalyst with high efficiency. Des Water Treat 57(7):3142–3151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arabzadeh N, Abdouss M (2010) Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of pseudoephedrine. Colloid J 72(4):446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Panjali Z, Asgharinezhad AA, Ebrahimzadeh H, Karami S, Loni M, Rezvani M, Yarahmadi R, Shahtaheri SJ (2015) Development of a selective sorbent based on a magnetic ion imprinted polymer for the preconcentration and FAAS determination of urinary cadmium. Anal Met 7(8):3618–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu X, Yu D, Yu Y, Ji S (2014) Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition of rhodamine B. App Surf Sci 320:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Asgharinezhad AA, Jalilian N, Ebrahimzadeh H, Panjali Z (2015) A simple and fast method based on new magnetic ion imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the selective extraction of Ni(ii) ions in different food samples. RSC Adv 5(56):45510–45519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arabzadeh N, Khosravi A, Mohammadi A, Mahmoodi N, Khorasani M (2015) Synthesis, characterization, and application of nano-molecularly imprinted polymer for fast solid-phase extraction of tartrazine from water environment. Des Water Treat 54(9):2452–2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mishra PK, Mondal MK, Srivastava P (2009) Separation processes: emerging technologies for sustainable development. Allied PublishersGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen SM, Chen JY, Thangamuthu R (2008) Electrochemical preparation of brilliant‐blue‐modified Poly(diallyldimethylammonium Chloride) and nafion‐coated glassy carbon electrodes and their electrocatalytic behavior towards oxygen and l‐cysteine. Electroanalysis 20(14):1565–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yaripour S, Mohammadi A, Nojavan S (2016) Electromembrane extraction of tartrazine from food samples: effects of nano-sorbents on membrane performance. J Sep Sci 39:2642–2651Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baggiani C, Giraudi G, Giovannoli C, Tozzi C, Anfossi L (2004) Adsorption isotherms of a molecular imprinted polymer prepared in the presence of a polymerisable template. Anal Chimacta 504(1):43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Darwish M, Mohammadi A, Assi N (2016) Integration of nickel doping with loading on graphene for enhanced adsorptive and catalytic properties of CdS nanoparticles towards visible light degradation of some antibiotics. J Hazard Mat 320:304–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yamaguchi NU, Bergamasco R, Hamoudi S (2016) Magnetic MnFe 2 O 4 –graphene hybrid composite for efficient removal of glyphosate from water. Chem Engin J 295:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Polymer Society, Taipei 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naghmeh Arabzadeh
    • 1
  • Reza Akbarzadeh
    • 1
  • Ali Mohammadi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maher Darwish
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of PharmacyTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, International CampusTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations