Journal of Polymer Research

, 25:194 | Cite as

Morphological studies of polyurethane based pressure sensitive adhesives by tapping mode atomic force microscopy

  • Nadia AkramEmail author
  • Khalid Mahmood Zia
  • Muhammad Saeed
  • Asim Mansha
  • Waheed Gul Khan


The polyurethane pressure sensitive adhesive (PUPSA) films have been prepared on polypropylene sheets with coating bars. The topographical information of the dried films is investigated using phase images by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode. The film develops a segmental architecture by using different compositions. Various samples of PUPSA comprising of polypropylene glycol PPG (Mn = 425, 1000, 2000 and 2700 g-mol−1) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene HTPB (Mn = 1984 and 2912 g-mol−1) along with three different isocyanates: 1,6 hexane diisocyanate (HDI), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (H12MDI) have been used for capturing the images through AFM. The samples contained 40 wt.% of solid content containing different nature of macrodiols and diisocyanate. Due to varying composition, dispersion in domain area along with different contour and dimension has been observed in the images. Apparently, there seems no correlation of spherulites and lamellae in different domains. However, the properties imparted by high molecular weight HTPB resulted in non-adhesive stiff material.

Graphical abstract


Polyurethane Pressure sensitive adhesives Morphology AFM 



The authors are thankful to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing the funding to complete this work. They also acknowledge the participation of Prof JL. Keddie, technical assistance from Dr. Robert gurney and Mrs. Violeta Doukova at the University of Surrey, UK.


  1. 1.
    Schön P, Bagdi K, Molnar K, Markus P, Pukánszky B, Vancso JG (2011) Quantitative mapping of elastic moduli at the nanoscale in phase separated polyurethanes by AFM. Eur Polym J 47(4):692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pablo S, Anbindera PJ, Peruzzob JI, Amalvy B (2016) Effect of food additives on the microstructure, mechanical and water transport properties of polyurethane films. Prog Org Coat 101:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Madbouly SA, Otaigbe JU (2009) Recent advances in synthesis, characterization and rheological properties of polyurethanes and POSS/polyurethane Nanocomposites dispersions and films. Prog Polym Sci 34:1283–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tahir M, Stöckelhuber WK, Mahmood N, Komber H, Formanek P, Wiebner S, Heinrich G (2015) Highly reinforced blends of nitrile butadiene rubber and in-situ synthesized polyurethane–urea. Eur Polym J 73:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Raju NP, Vairamani M, Raju KVSN (2008) Structural investigations of polypropylene glycol (PPG) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) based polyurethane prepolymer by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry. Prog Org Coat 62:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yilgeor I, Yilgeor E, Wilkes LG (2015) Critical parameters in designing segmented polyurethanes and their effect on morphology and properties: a comprehensive review. Polym 58:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prisacariu C (2011) Polyurethane elastomers from morphology to mechanical aspects. Springer, Wien, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Domanska A, Boczkowska A (2014) Biodegradable polyurethanes from crystalline prepolymers. Polym Degrad Stab 108:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bao LH, Lan J, Zhang SF (2006) Synthesis and properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersions with ions in the soft segments. J Polym Res 13:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Santamaria EA, Arbelaiz A, Saralegi A, Fernandez AB, Eceiza A, Corcuera MA (2015) Relationship between reagents molar ratio and dispersion stability and film properties of waterborne polyurethanes. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 482:554–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sardon H, Irusta L, Santamaría LIP, Berridi MJF (2012) Thermal and mechanical behaviour of self-curable waterborne hybrid polyurethanes functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES). J Polym Res 19:9956–9964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abhinay M, Pralay M (2011) Morphology of polyurethanes at various length scale: the influence of chain structure. J Appl Polym Sci 120:3546–3555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tobing SD, Klein A (2000) Mechanistic studies in tackified acrylic emulsion pressure sensitive adhesives. J Appl Polym Sci 76:1965–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tao HJ, Rice DM, MacKnight WJ, Hsu SL (1995) Investigation of the phase SeparationBehavior of polyurethane elastomers by two-dimensional wide-line-separation nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Macromol 28:4036–4038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eceiza A, Larranaga M, Caba K, Kortaberria G, Marieta C, Corcuera MA (2008) Mondragon, I Structure–property relationships of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers based on polycarbonate diols. J Appl Polym Sci 108:3092–3103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foster AB, Lovell PA, Rabjohns MA (2009) Control of adhesive properties through structured particle design of water-borne pressure-sensitive adhesives. Polymer 50:1654–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Portigliatti M, Hervet H, Leger L (2000) Nanotack test: adhesive behavior of single latex particles. Surf Interface films 1:1187–1196Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aneja A, Wilkes GL (2003) A systematic series of 'model' PTMO based segmented polyurethanes reinvestigated using atomic force microscopy. Polymer 44:7221–7228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Canetta E, Adya AK (2011) Atomic force microscopic investigation of commercial pressure sensitive adhesives for forensic analysis. Forensic Sci Int 210:16–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Król P, Król B, Pielichowska K, Pikus S (2011) Comparison of phase structures and surface free energy values for the coatings synthesised from linear polyurethanes and from waterborne polyurethane cationomers. Colloid Polym Sci 289:1757–1767CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Akram N, Gurney RS, Zuber M, Ishaq M, Keddie JL (2013) Influence of Polyol molecular weight and type on the tack and peel properties of waterborne polyurethane pressure-sensitive adhesives. Macromol React Eng 2013(7):493–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pant CS, Santosh MSS, Banerjee SB, Khanna PK (2013) Single step synthesis of nitro-functionalized hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene. Propellants Explos Pyrotech 38:748–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krol P (2007) Synthesis methods, chemical structures and phase structures of linear polyurethanes. Properties and applications of linear polyurethanes in polyurethane elastomers, copolymers and ionomers. Prog Mater Sci 57:915–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wen TC, Luo S, Yang C (2000) Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes derived from various diisocyanate-based waterborne polyurethanes. Polymer 41(18):6755–6764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chattopadhyay DK, Raju KVSN (2007) Structural engineering of polyurethane coatings for high performance applications. Prog Polym Sci 32:352–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Honeychuck RV, Ho T, Wynne KJ, Nissan RA (1993) Preparation and characterization of polyurethanes based on a series of fluorinated diols. Chem Mater 5:1299–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yildirim E, Yurtsever M, Wilkes GL, Yilgeor I (2016) Effect of intersegmental interactions on the morphology of segmented polyurethanes with mixed soft segments: A coarse-grained simulation study. Polymer 90:204–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Czech Z, Milker R (2005) Development trends in pressure-sensitive adhesive systems. Mater Sci Pol 23:1015–1022Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nagle DJ, Celina M, Rintoul L, Fredericks PM (2007) Infrared microspectroscopic study of the thermo-oxidative degradation of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene/isophorone diisocyanate polyurethane rubber. Polym Degrad Stab 92:1446–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations