Porous Carrageenan-g-polyacrylamide/bentonite superabsorbent composites: swelling and dye adsorption behavior

  • Ali PourjavadiEmail author
  • Zahrasadat Bassampour
  • Hossein Ghasemzadeh
  • Mojtaba Nazari
  • Leila Zolghadr
  • Seyed Hassan Hosseini
Original Paper


A novel superabsorbent composite based on kappa-Carrageenan (κC) was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto κC in the presence of bentonite powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator, and sodium carbonate as a pore-forming agent. The swelling behavior in distilled water and in solutions with different pH values was investigated. The results indicated that with increasing carrageenan/bentonite weight ratio, the swelling capacity is increased but the gel content is decreased. The swelling rate of the hydrogels was improved by introducing sodium carbonate as pore-forming agent. The prepared superadsorbent composites were used as adsorbent for a cationic dye, methylene blue. Isotherm of adsorption and the effect of pH, adsorption dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration on dye adsorption were also studied. The results showed that maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue on the prepared adsorbents is 156.25 mg g−1 and adsorption is well-described by Langmuir isotherm model.


Superabsorbent hydrogel Bentonite Carrageenan Methylene blue Dye adsorption 



We are grateful for financial support by the Iran’s National Elites Foundation.

Supplementary material

10965_2016_955_MOESM1_ESM.docx (227 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 227 kb)


  1. 1.
    Cipriano BH, Banik SJ, Sharma R, Rumore D, Hwang W, Briber RM, Raghavan SR (2014) Macromolecules 47:4445–4452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spagnol C, Rodrigues FH, Pereira AG, Fajardo AR, Rubira AF, Muniz EC (2012) Carbohydr Polym 87:2038–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghasemzadeh H, Ghanaat F (2014) J Polym Res 21:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pan S, Ragauskas AJ (2012) Carbohydr Polym 87:1410–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    El Halah A, Contreras J, Rojas-Rojas L, Rivas M, Romero M, López-Carrasquero F (2015) J Polym Res 22:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erbil C, Topuz D, Gökçeören A, Şenkal B (2011) Polym Adv Technol 22:1696–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ikeda M, Yoshii T, Matsui T, Tanida T, Komatsu H, Hamachi I (2011) J Am Chem Soc 133:1670–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang J, Chen H, Wang A (2006) Eur Polym J 42:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Qi X, Liu M, Chen Z (2015) Polym Eng Sci 55:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang Q, Wang W, Wu J, Wang A (2012) J Appl Polym Sci 124:4424–4432Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pradhan AK, Rana PK, Sahoo PK (2015) Int J Biologic Macromol 74:620–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen X, Li J, Mao C, Jiao X, Liu Y, Gong J, Zhao Y (2014) J Macromol Sci A 51:799–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pourjavadi A, Ghasemzadeh H, Soleyman R (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 105:2631–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang YT, Fan LH, Zhi TT, Zhang L, Huang H, Chen HL (2009) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 47:3232–3240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee W-F, Chen Y-C (2006) Eur Polym J 42:1634–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Limparyoon N, Seetapan N, Kiatkamjornwong S (2011) Polym Degrad Stab 96:1054–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fu LH, Cao TH, Lei ZW, Chen H, Shi YG, Xu C (2016) Mater Des 94:322–329Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kalaleh H, Tally M, Atassi Y (2015) Polym Sci Ser B 57:750–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marandi GB, Baharloui M, Kurdtabar M, Mahmoodpoor Sharabian L, Mojarrad MA (2015) Res Chem Intermed 41:7043–7058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pourjavadi A, Soleyman R, Ghasemzadeh H, Salimi H (2010) Iran Polym J 19:571–579Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang W, Shen J, Li N, Ye M (2015) Polym Eng Sci 55:1361–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Du J, Chen P, Adalati A, Xu S, Wu R, Wang J, Zhang C (2014) J Polym Res 21:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rashidzadeh A, Olad A, Salari D, Reyhanitabar A (2014) J Polym Res 21:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salem S, Salem A, Babaei AA (2015) J Ind Eng Chem 23:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang G, Yi L, Deng H, Sun P (2014) J Environ Sci 26:1203–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Y, Wang W, Wang A (2013) Chem Eng J 228:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun XF, Jing Z, Wang G (2013) J Appl Polym Sci 128:1861–1870Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Annabi N, Nichol JW, Zhong X, Ji C, Koshy S, Khademhosseini A, Dehghani F (2010) Tissue Eng B Rev 16:371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Omidian H, Hashemi S, Sammes P, Meldrum I (1998) Polymer 39:6697–6704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Islam MS, Rahaman MS, Yeum JH (2015) Carbohyd Polym 115:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhou Y, Fu S, Zhang L, Zhan H (2013) Carbohyd Polym 97:429–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Parvathy PC, Jyothi AN (2012) Starch-Starke 64:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodrigues F, Fajardo AR, Pereira AGB, Ricardo NMPS, Feitosa JPA, Muniz EC (2012) J Polym Res 19:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kono H, Zakimi M (2013) J Appl Polym Sci 128:572–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Langmuir I (1916) J Am Chem Soc 38:2221–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Freundlich HMF (1906) Z Phys Chem 57:385–471Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Pourjavadi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zahrasadat Bassampour
    • 1
  • Hossein Ghasemzadeh
    • 2
  • Mojtaba Nazari
    • 1
  • Leila Zolghadr
    • 2
  • Seyed Hassan Hosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistrySharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceImam Khomeini International UniversityQazvinIran

Personalised recommendations