Blends of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polydimethyl siloxane rubber (PDMS), part-I: assessment of compatibility from torque rheometry and mechanical properties

  • Krishna Prasad Rajan
  • Ahmed Al-Ghamdi
  • P. Ramesh
  • G. B. Nando
Original Paper

Abstract

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polydimethyl siloxane rubber (PDMS) are two major polymers used extensively for biomedical applications. Blending of these polymers combines the superior mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, solvent resistance and aging resistance of TPU with chemical stability, inertness, flexibility and biocompatibility of PDMS. In the present investigation, an 80:20 blend of TPU and PDMS was selected for the preparation of an in situ compatibilized blend using ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA) as the compatibilizer. Effect of EMA on blends of ester type and ether type TPU with PDMS was studied. From the results obtained from torque rheometry, mechanical property evaluation, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was concluded that 5 wt% of compatibilizer effectively compatibilized an 80:20 blend of ester type TPU and PDMS, whereas similar blend of ether type TPU required only 2 wt% compatibilizer.

Keywords

Thermoplastic polyurethane Polydimethyl siloxane rubber Compatibilizer Torque rheometry Mechanical properties Scanning electron microscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the valuable suggestions and advice provided by Prof Sadhan Kumar De (Chair Professor in Chemical Engineering, King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

References

  1. 1.
    Van Puyvelde P, Velankar S, Moldenaers P (2001) Rheology and morphology of compatibilized polymer blends. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 6:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mustapha I, Bousmina M, Jerome R (2001) Rheology of compatibilized immiscible polymer blends. Rheol Acta 40:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anastasiadis SH, Gancarz I, Koberstein JT (1989) Compatibilizing effect of block copolymers added to the polymer/polymer interface. Macromolecules 22:1449–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noolandi J, Hong KM (1982) Interfacial properties of immiscible homopolymer blends in the presence of block copolymers. Macromolecules 15:482–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santra RN, Samantaray BK, Bhowmick AK, Nando GB (1993) In-situ compatibilization of low density polyethylene and polydimethylsiloxane rubber blends using ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer as a chemical compatibilizer. J Appl Polym Sci 49:1145–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giri R, Naskar K, Nando GB (2012) In-situ compatibilization of linear low density polyethylene and poly dimethyl siloxane rubber through reactive blending. Materials Express 2:37–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hasirci N, Aksoy EA (2007) Synthesis and modifications of polyurethanes for biomedical purposes. High Perform Polym 19(5–6):621–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lamba N, Woodhouse K, Cooper S (1998) Polyurethanes in biomedical applications. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vermette P, Griesser HJ, Laroche G, Guidoin R (2001) Biomedical applications of polyurethane. Eurekah.com, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, Texas, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zdrahala RJ, Zdrahala IJ (1999) Biomedical applications of polyurethanes: a review of past promises, present realities, and a vibrant future. J Biomater Appl 14:67–90Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lelah MD, Cooper SL (1996) Polyurethane in medicine. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El-Zaim HS, Heggers JP (2001) Silicones for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In: Severian D (ed) Polymeric biomaterials, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 79–88Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barbara G, Silverman S, Lori B, Roselie A, Bright RG, Kaczmarek JB, Arrowsmith L, David AK (1996) Reported complications of silicone gel breast implants: an epidemiologic review. Ann Intern Med 124:744–756Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Santra RN, Roy S, Tikku VK, Nando GB (1995) In-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic polyurethane and polydimethyl siloxane rubber by using ethylene methyl acrylate copolymer as a reactive compatibilizer. Adv Polym Tech 14:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Damrongsakkul S, Sinweeruthai R, Higgins JS (2003) Processability and chemical resistance of the polymer blend of thermoplastic polyurethane and polydimethyl siloxane. Macromol Symp 198:411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lucas P, Robin JJ (2007) Silicone-based polymer blends: an overview of the materials and processes. Adv Polym Sci 209:111–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dolmaire N, Méchin F, Espuche E (2006) Water transport in polyurethane/polydimethyl siloxane membranes: influence of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance and of the crosslink density. Desalination 199:118–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lu GM, Hai NY, Yuan ZJ, Jun C (2011) Study on vulcanization and thermal decomposition behaviors of Methyl Vinyl Silicone Rubber/Polyurethane Rubber blends. J Macromol Sci Phys 50:1491–1499Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bousmina M, Ait-Kadi A, Faisant JB (1999) Determination of shear rate and viscosity from batch mixer data. J Rheol 43:415–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robeson LM (2007) Polymer blends: a comprehensive review. Hanser, Munich, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Coates J (2006) Interpretation of Infrared spectra, a practical approach. Encycl Anal Chem. doi:10.1002/9780470027318.a5606
  22. 22.
    Jana RN, Nando GB (2008) Cure kinetics and mechanical properties of compatibilized blends of low density polyethylene and poly dimethyl siloxane rubber. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 21:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yerina M, Magonov S (2003) Atomic force microscopy in analysis of rubber materials. Rubber Chem Technol 76:846–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna Prasad Rajan
    • 1
  • Ahmed Al-Ghamdi
    • 1
  • P. Ramesh
    • 2
  • G. B. Nando
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering TechnologyYanbu Industrial College, Royal Commission for Jubail and YanbuYanbu Industrial CityKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and TechnologyThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations