Advertisement

Overestimating Self-Blame for Stressful Life Events and Adolescents’ Latent Trait Cortisol: The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth

  • Catherine B. StroudEmail author
  • Frances R. Chen
  • Blair E. Curzi
  • Douglas A. Granger
  • Leah D. Doane
Empirical Research

Abstract

Cognitive interpretations of stressful events impact their implications for physiological stress processes. However, whether such interpretations are related to trait cortisol—an indicator of individual differences in stress physiology—is unknown. In 112 early adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years), this study examined the association between self-blame estimates for past year events and latent trait cortisol, and whether maternal warmth moderated effects. Overestimating self-blame (versus objective indices) for independent (uncontrollable) events was associated with lower latent trait cortisol, and maternal warmth moderated the effect of self-blame estimates on latent trait cortisol for each dependent (at least partially controllable) and interpersonal events. Implications for understanding the impact of cognitive and interpersonal factors on trait cortisol during early adolescence are discussed.

Keywords

Cognitive vulnerability Stressful life events Trait cortisol Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis Maternal warmth 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the families who participated in this study, all of the research staff who assisted with this study, and Andrea Gierens at Biochemisches Labor at the University of Trier for technical assistance with the salivary assays.

Authors’ Contributions

C.B.S. and F.R.C. contributed to the development of the research questions for this manuscript. C.B.S. and B.E.C. contributed to data acquisition. B.E.C. contributed to data coding. L.D.D. and F.R.C. contributed to data processing and preparation for analysis. F.R.C. conducted the statistical analysis. C.B.S. and F.R.C. contributed to drafting this manuscript, and all authors contributed feedback used in drafting and revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This research was supported by institutional funds from Williams College (C.B.S., Principal Investigator). L.D.D. was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01HD079520 and a William T. Grant Foundation Early Scholar Award.

Data Sharing Declaration

The datasets generated and analyzed for the current study are not publicly available, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

In the interest of full disclosure, D.A.G. is founder and Chief Scientific and Strategy Advisor of Salimetrics LLC (State College, PA) and SalivaBio LLC (Baltimore, MD). The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Williams College Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Gibb, B. E., Crossfield, A. G., Pieracci, A. M., Spasojevic, J., & Steinberg, J. A. (2004). Developmental antecedents of cognitive vulnerability to depression: review of findings from the cognitive vulnerability to depression project. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 18, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alloy, L. B., Black, S. K., Young, M. E., Goldstein, K. E., Shapero, B. G., Stange, J. P., & Abramson, L. Y. (2012). Cognitive vulnerabilities and depression versus other psychopathology symptoms and diagnoses in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 539–560.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.703123.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. Oxford, England: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  5. Booth, A., Granger, D. A., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2008). Gender- and age-related differences in the association between social relationship quality and trait levels of salivary cortisol. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 239–260.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00559.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: a review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Buehler, C., Lange, G., & Franck, K. L. (2007). Adolescents’ cognitive and emotional responses to marital hostility. Child Development, 78, 775–789.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01032.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Calhoun, C. D., Helms, S. W., Heilbron, N., Rudolph, K. D., Hastings, P. D., & Prinstein, M. J. (2014). Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents’ hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor. Development & Psychopathology, 26, 605–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Morgan, J., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., Arseneault, L., & Polo-Tomas, M. (2004). Maternal expressed emotion predicts children’s antisocial behavior problems: using monozygotic-twin differences to identify environmental effects on behavioral development. Developmental Psychology, 40, 149–161.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, F. R., & Jaffee, S. R. (2018). Using three-group propensity score method to estimate effects of relationship status and quality on men’s antisocial behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 54, 88–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Connor-Smith, J. K., Compas, B. E., Wadsworth, M. E., Thomsen, A. H., & Saltzman, H. (2000). Responses to stress in adolescence: measurement of coping and involuntary stress responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 976–992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837–844.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1562–1592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355–391.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Doane, L. D., Chen, F. R., Sladek, M. R., Van Lenten, S. A., & Granger, D. A. (2015). Latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels: Reliability, validity, and stability. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 55, 21–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.01.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dressendörfer, R. A., Kirschbaum, C., Rohde, W., Stahl, F., & Strasburger, C. J. (1992). Synthesis of a cortisol-biotin conjugate and evaluation as a tracer in an immunoassay for salivary cortisol measurement. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 43, 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Essex, M. J., Shirtcliff, E. A., Burk, L. R., Ruttle, P. L., Klein, M. H., Slattery, M. J., & Armstrong, J. M. (2011). Influence of early life stress on later hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms: a study of the allostatic process from childhood into adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1039–1058.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579411000484.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans, G. W., Kim, P., Ting, A. H., Tesher, H. B., & Shannis, D. (2007). Cumulative risk, maternal responsiveness, and allostatic load among young adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43, 341–351.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gartland, N., O’Connor, D. B., Lawton, R., & Bristow, M. (2014). Exploring day-to-day dynamics of daily stressor appraisals, physical symptoms and the cortisol awakening response. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, 130–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.08.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Marital conflict and children’s adjustment: a cognitive-contextual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 267–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gunnar, M. R., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145–173.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gunnar, M. R., Wewerka, S., Frenn, K., Long, J. D., & Griggs, C. (2009). Developmental changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 69–85.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579409000054.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Hackman, D. A., O’Brien, J. R., & Zalewski, M. (2018). Enduring association between parenting and cortisol: a meta‐analysis. Child Development, 89, 1485–1503.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13077.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hagan, M. J., Roubinov, D. S., Gress-Smith, J., Luecken, L. J., Sandler, I. N., & Wolchik, S. (2011). Positive parenting during childhood moderates the impact of recent negative events on cortisol activity in parentally bereaved youth. Psychopharmacology, 214, 231–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1889-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (2002). Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence: reliability, validity and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 491–504.  https://doi.org/10.1207/153744202320802160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Harkness, K. L., Bruce, A. E., & Lumley, M. N. (2006). The role of childhood abuse and neglect in the sensitization to stressful life events in adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 730–741.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.115.4.730.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayden, E. P., Hankin, B. L., Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Jordan, P. L., Dozois, D. J. A., & Badanes, L. S. (2014). Parental depression and child cognitive vulnerability predict children’s cortisol reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1445–1460.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414001138.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Hilt, L. M., Sladek, M. R., Doane, L. D., & Stroud, C. B. (2017). Daily and trait rumination: diurnal cortisol patterns in adolescent girls. Cognition & Emotion, 31, 1757–1767.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2016.1262332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hostinar, C. E., & Gunnar, M. R. (2013). Future directions in the study of social relationships as regulators of the HPA axis across development. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 564–575.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.804387.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Hostinar, C. E., Johnson, A. E., & Gunnar, M. R. (2015). Parent support is less effective in buffering cortisol stress reactivity for adolescents compared to children. Developmental Science, 18, 281–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.3.4.424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hu, T., Zhang, D., & Yang, Z. (2015). The relationship between attributional style for negative outcomes and depression: a meta-analysis. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 304–321.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.4.304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Juster, R.-P., McEwen, B. S., & Lupien, S. J. (2010). Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 2–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.10.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rau, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children- present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kemeny, M. E. (2003). The psychobiology of stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 124–129.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krackow, E., & Rudolph, K. D. (2008). Life stress and the accuracy of cognitive appraisals in depressed youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 376–385.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410801955797.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuehner, C., Holzhauer, S., & Huffziger, S. (2007). Decreased cortisol response to awakening is associated with cognitive vulnerability to depression in a nonclinical sample of young adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 199–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuhlman, K. R., Olson, S. L., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2014). Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 908–923.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. LaGrange, B., Cole, D. A., Jacquez, F., Ciesla, J., Dallaire, D., Pineda, A., & Felton, J. (2011). Disentangling the prospective relations between maladaptive cognitions and depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 511–527.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Lakdawalla, Z., Hankin, B. L., & Mermelstein, R. (2007). Cognitive theories of depression in children and adolescents: a conceptual and quantitative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-006-0013-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lippold, M. A., Davis, K. D., McHale, S. M., Buxton, O. M., & Almeida, D. M. (2016). Daily stressor reactivity during adolescence: the buffering role of parental warmth. Health Psychology, 35, 1027–1035.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000352.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Lucas-Thompson, R. G., & Hostinar, C. E. (2013). Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 784–794.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034373.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lucas-Thompson, R. G., Lunkenheimer, E. S., & Dumitrache, A. (2017). Associations between marital conflict and adolescent conflict appraisals, stress physiology, and mental health. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 46, 379–393.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1046179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Luecken, L. J., Hagan, M. J., Wolchik, S. A., Sandler, I. N., & Tein, J.-Y. (2016). A longitudinal study of the effects of child-reported maternal warmth on cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 163–170.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000251.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Magaña, A. B., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M., Miklowitz, D. J., Jenkins, J., & Falloon, I. R. H. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17, 203–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(86)90049-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. McEwen, B. S. (1998a). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. McEwen, B. S. (1998b). Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. In S. M. McCann, J. M. Lipton, E. M. Sternberg, G. P. Chrousos, P. W. Gold & C. C. Smith (Eds), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 840: Neuroimmunomodulation: Molecular aspects, integrative systems, and clinical advances. (pp. 33–44). New York, NY, US: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  48. Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 25–45.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mirowsky, J. (1999). Analyzing associations between mental health and social circumstances. In C. S. Aneshensel & J. C. Phelan (Eds), Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 105–123). US: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 361–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. (2002). How to use a Monte Carlo study to decide on sample size and determine. Power. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 599–620.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0904_8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2018). Mplus User’s Guide. 8th edn Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
  53. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ottaviani, C., Thayer, J. F., Verkuil, B., Lonigro, A., Medea, B., Couyoumdjian, A., & Brosschot, J. F. (2016). Physiological concomitants of perseverative cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 231–259.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000036.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Petersen, A. C., Crockett, L., Richards, M., & Boxer, A. (1988). A self-report measure of pubertal status: reliability, validity, and initial norms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 117–133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01537962.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Power, T. G. (2004). Stress and coping in childhood: the parents’ role. Parenting: Science and Practice, 4, 271–317.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327922par0404_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rohde, P., Beevers, C. G., Stice, E., & O’Neil, K. (2009). Major and minor depression in female adolescents: onset, course, symptom presentation, and demographic associations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 1339–1349.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Rudolph, K. D., & Flynn, M. (2007). Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 497–521.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579407070241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Rudolph, K. D., & Hammen, C. (1999). Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: a transactional perspective. Child Development, 70, 660–677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Lindberg, N., Herzberg, D. S., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Toward an interpersonal life-stress model of depression: the developmental context of stress generation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 215–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Savalei, V., & Rhemtulla, M. (2012). On obtaining estimates of the fraction of missing information from full information maximum likelihood. Structural Equation Modeling, 19, 477–494.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2012.687669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shapero, B. G., McClung, G., Bangasser, D. A., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2017). Interaction of biological stress recovery and cognitive vulnerability for depression in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 91–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0451-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sladek, M. R., Doane, L. D., & Stroud, C. B. (2016). Individual and day-to-day differences in active coping predict diurnal cortisol patterns among early adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0591-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Steinberg, L. (1987). Impact of puberty on family relations: effects of pubertal status and pubertal timing. Developmental Psychology, 23, 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stewart, J. G., Mazurka, R., Bond, L., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., & Harkness, K. L. (2013). Rumination and impaired cortisol recovery following a social stressor in adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 1015–1026.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9740-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Stroud, C. B., Chen, F. R., Doane, L. D., & Granger, D. A. (2016a). Individual differences in early adolescents’ latent trait cortisol (LTC): relation to early adversity. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 700–713.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.21410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Stroud, C. B., Chen, F. R., Doane, L. D., & Granger, D. A. (2016b). Individual differences in early adolescents’ latent trait cortisol (LTC): relation to recent acute and chronic stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 70, 38–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.04.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Stroud, C. B., Chen, F. R., Doane, L. D., & Granger, D. A. (2019). Early adversity and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: mediation by individual differences in latent trait cortisol. Development & Psychopathology, 31, 509–524.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418000044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stroud, C. B., Davila, J., Hammen, C., & Vrshek-Schallhorn, S. (2011). Severe and nonsevere events in first onsets versus recurrences of depression: evidence for stress sensitization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 142–154.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Thompson, S. F., Zalewski, M., Kiff, C. J., & Lengua, L. J. (2018). A state-trait model of cortisol in early childhood: contextual and parental predictors of stable and time-varying effects. Hormones and Behavior, 98, 198–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.12.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Wittchen, H. U., Nelson, C. B., & Lachner, G. (1998). Prevalence of mental disorders and psychosocial impairments in adolescents and young adults. Psychological Medicine, 28, 109–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliams CollegeWilliamstownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Criminal Justice and CriminologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience ResearchUniversity of California at IrvineIrvineUSA
  4. 4.The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Bloomberg School of Public Health, and School of MedicineThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Salivary Bioscience Laboratory and Department of PsychologyUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations