Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 48, Issue 9, pp 1736–1753 | Cite as

Longitudinal Associations between Ethnic/Racial Identity and Discrimination among Asian and Latinx Adolescents

  • Yuen Mi CheonEmail author
  • Tiffany Yip
Empirical Research


The numbers of Asian and Latinx adolescents are growing fast in the United States. While their ethnic/racial identity and experience of discrimination have been found to play important roles in their development, current scholarship has only begun to understand their longitudinal relationships. Moreover, most of the existing studies have examined these associations only at the between-person level. To address these gaps, the current study examined both between- and within-person longitudinal associations between ethn−ic/racial identity (exploration, commitment, private regard, and centrality) and discrimination over a 3-year period among a total of 241 adolescents (Asian: n = 139, Latinx: n = 102; female: 65.96%; M age = 15.27, SD = 0.66). The within-person approach using the random-intercept cross-lagged panel models explained the associations better than the between-person approach using the cross-lagged panel model. Specifically, reciprocal within-person longitudinal associations were found between discrimination and developmental dimensions of ethnic/racial identity (exploration and commitment) for Asian adolescents and content dimensions (private regard and centrality) for Latinx adolescents. These findings imply the usefulness of within-person longitudinal designs in understanding the associations between ethnic/racial identity and discrimination. Implications for potential similarities and differences in the longitudinal associations between ethnic/racial identity development and the experience of discrimination for the two groups are discussed.


Ethnic/racial identity Discrimination Asian adolescents Latinx adolescents Within-person design 


Authors’ Contributions

YMC reviewed the literature, conducted statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript; TY designed and supervised the original data collection, helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This research was supported by a grant awarded to TY and J. Nicole Shelton of Princeton University from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (1 R01 HD055436). The YMC was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (1 R21 HD 088818) awarded to TY.

Data Sharing Declaration

This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study procedures were approved by Fordham University Institutional Review Board. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants (parents) included in the study. Informal assent was obtained from adolescents.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityBronxUSA

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