Emerging Adulthood and Prospective Depression: A Simultaneous Test of Cumulative Risk Theories
- 52 Downloads
Past research indicates that a history of depression and exposure to abuse and neglect represent some of the most robust predictors of depression in emerging adults. However, studies rarely test the additive or interactive risk associated with these distinct risk factors. In response, the present study explored how these three risk factors (prior depression, abuse, and neglect) synergistically predicted prospective depressive symptoms in a sample of 214 emerging adults (Mage = 21.4 years; SDage = 2.4; 78% females). Subtypes of maltreatment and lifetime history of depression were assessed through semi-structured interviews, and depressive symptoms were assessed annually for three years via self-report measures. The results indicated that for both males and females, a lifetime history of depression, abuse, and neglect-exposure uniquely conferred risk for elevated depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the interaction between neglect and prior depression forecasted increasing depressive symptoms, and a history of abuse also predicted increasing depressive symptoms, but only in females. These findings are contextualized within extant developmental psychopathology theories, and translational implications for trauma-informed depression prevention efforts are discussed.
KeywordsMaltreatment Depression Emerging adulthood Longitudinal data analysis
The authors would like to thank Hailey Hedden for her contributions to the early stages of this manuscript.
J.R.C. conceptualized the aims and hypotheses, conducted the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. K.N.T. conceptualized the aims and hypotheses and helped draft the Introduction and Discussion. A.R. made substantial contributions to the acquisition, scoring, and management of the data. S.B. made substantial contributions to the acquisition, scoring, and management of the data. T.S. made substantial contributions to the acquisition, scoring, and management of the data. T.R.K. contributed to the overall design of the study, the management of the data, and the preparation of the manuscript. N.B.-V. is the director of the project, designed the methods, oversaw data collection, and contributed to the preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Authors are supported by the Spanish Minesterio de Economica y Competitividad (PSI2017-87512-C2-01) and the Comissionat per a Universitatis I Recerca of Generalitat de Catalunya (2017SGR1612). J.oseph R. C.ohen is supported by the National Institute of Justice (2018-R2-CX-0022). N. B.arrantes-V.idal is supported by Institucio´ Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanc¸ats (ICREA) Academia Award and Centro de Investigacio´n Biome´dica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain. A. R.acioppi is supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economı´a y Competitividad (BOE-A-2015-6508) and by the European Social Found (ESF). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Data Sharing and Declaration
This manuscript’s data are not publically available at this time.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Iinterest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This present study was conducted in compliance with the specific requirements of the United States and Spain for retrospective studies. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the present study.
- Arnett, J. J. (2014). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T, Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. https://doi.org/10.1037/t00742-000.
- Bifulco, A., Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O. (1994). Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA): A retrospective interview measure. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(8), 1419–1435. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01284.x.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. R., McNeil, S. L., Shorey, R. C., & Temple, J. R. (2019). Maltreatment subtypes, depressed mood, and anhedonia: A longitudinal study with adolescents. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000418.
- Cohen, J. R., So, F. K., Hankin, B. L., & Young, J. F. (2018b). Translating cognitive vulnerability theory into improved adolescent depression screening: a receiver operating characteristic approach. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 00(00), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1416617.(in press).Google Scholar
- Costello, D. M., Swendsen, J., Rose, J. S., & Dierker, L. C. (2008). Risk and protective factors associated with trajectories of depressed mood from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.173.Google Scholar
- Cristóbal-Narváez, P., Sheinbaum, T., Ballespí, S., Mitjavila, M., Myin-Germeys, I., Kwapil, T. R., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2016). Impact of adverse childhood experiences on psychotic-like symptoms and stress reactivity in daily life in nonclinical young adults. Focus, 14(3), 387–395.Google Scholar
- Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8.Google Scholar
- Gutman, L. M., Joshi, H., & Schoon, I. (2019). Developmental trajectories of conduct problems and cumulative risk from early childhood to adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0971-x.
- Hankin, B. L., Young, J. F., Abela, J. R., Smolen, A., Jenness, J. L., Gulley, L. D., Technow, J. R., Gottlieb, A. B., Cohen, J. R., & Oppenheimer, C. W. (2015). Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 803 https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000089.Google Scholar
- Ialongo, N. S., Rogosch, F. A., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., Buckley, J., Petras, H., & Neiderhiser, J. (2015). A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders. Developmental psychopathology, vol. 1: Theory and method (pp. 968–1018). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Ingram, R. E., Siegle, G. J., & Steidtmann, D. (2009). Methodological issues in the study of depression. Handbook of Depression, 2, 69–92.Google Scholar
- Kremers, I. P., Van Giezen, A. E., Van der Does, A. J. W., Van Dyck, R., & Spinhoven, P. (2007). Memory of childhood trauma before and after long-term psychological treatment of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2005.12.003.Google Scholar
- Kwapil, T. R., Gross, G. M., Silvia, P. J., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2013). Prediction of psychopathology and functional impairment by positive and negative schizotypy in the Chapmans’ ten-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(3), 807 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(14)70434-7.Google Scholar
- Lobbestael, J., & Arntz, A. (2010). The Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC-2), version 2. Maastricht: Maastricht University.Google Scholar
- Lobbestael, J., Arntz, A., Harkema-Schouten, P., & Bernstein, D. (2009). Development and psychometric evaluation of a new assessment method for childhood maltreatment experiences: The interview for traumatic events in childhood (ITEC). Child Abuse & Neglect, 33(8), 505–517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.03.002.Google Scholar
- McCrory, E. J., Gerin, M. I., & Viding, E. (2017). Annual research review: Childhood maltreatment, latent vulnerability and the shift to preventative psychiatry—the contribution of functional brain imaging. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(4), 338–357. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12713.Google Scholar
- Menon, S. V., Cohen, J. R., Shorey, R. C., & Temple, J. R. (2018). The impact of intimate partner violence exposure in adolescence and emerging adulthood: A developmental psychopathology approach. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(sup1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1437736.Google Scholar
- Miller, A. B., Sheridan, M. A., Hanson, J. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Bates, J. E., Lansford, J. E., Petit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2018). Dimensions of deprivation and threat, psychopathology, and potential mediators: A multi-year longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(2), 160 https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000331.Google Scholar
- Hilt & Nolen-Hoeksema. (2013). The emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. In: Nolen-Hoeksema & Hilt (eds.) Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 127–152). Abingdon, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203809518.
- Post, R. M. (1992). Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(8), 999. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.149.8.999.
- Reed-Fitzke, K. (2019). The role of self-concepts in emerging adult depression: A systematic research synthesis. Journal of Adult Development, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-018-09324-7.
- Rudolph, K. D., & Flynn, M. (2009). Adolescent depression. Handbook of Depression, Vol. 2 (pp. 444–466). New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Sanchez-Villegas, A., Schlatter, J., Ortuno, F., Lahortiga, F., Pla, J., Benito, S., & Martinez- Gonzalez, M. A. (2008). Validity of a self-reported diagnosis of depression among participants in a cohort study using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID- I). BMC Psychiatry, 8(43). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-8-43.
- Singer, J. D., Willett, J. B., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1992). The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID): I: History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(8), 624–629. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820080032005.Google Scholar
- Sprinkle, S. D., Lurie, D., Insko, S. L., Atkinson, G., Jones, G. L., Logan, A. R., & Bissada, N. N. (2002). Criterion validity, severity cut scores, and test-retest reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a university counseling center sample. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(3), 381 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1991.Google Scholar
- Smith, C. A., Greenman, S. J., Thornberry, T. P., Henry, K. L., & Ireland, T. O. (2015). Adolescent risk for intimate partner violence perpetration. Prevention Science, 16(6), 862–872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0560-0.
- Thabrew, H, de Sylva, S., & Romans, S. (2012). Evaluating childhood adversity. In: G. A. Fava, N. Sonino & T. N. Wise (eds.) In The Psychosomatic Assessment. (pp. 35–57). Basel, CH: Karger Publishers.Google Scholar