Latent Profile Analysis of Left-behind Adolescents’ Psychosocial Adaptation in Rural China
- 153 Downloads
Parental absence, a consequence of parents’ rural-to-urban migration, exerts negative influences on their left-behind adolescents in rural China. Existing studies are limited by their focus on the isolated developmental outcomes of left-behind adolescents and by a dearth of work focused on naturally occurring patterns of their developmental outcomes. The present study used a person-centered approach to identify adolescents’ adaptation profiles based on internalizing indicators (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness, subjective happiness, life satisfaction), externalizing indicators (i.e., rule-breaking behavior, aggressive behavior, prosocial behavior) and academic achievement and to relate these profiles to left-behind status, characteristics of parent-adolescent separation and gender. The study included 2102 adolescents (Mage = 13.48 ± 1.10 years, 46.8% girls) in junior high schools in rural China. A latent profile analysis identified 3 profiles: an adequate adaptation profile, an internalizing problem profile and an externalizing problem profile. These profiles were linked to left-behind status, to characteristics of parent-adolescent separation (i.e., separation duration, interval of long-distance communication and face-to-face communication) and to gender. These findings provide significant implications for future research and the development of interventions.
KeywordsLeft-behind adolescents Psychosocial adaptation Parent-adolescent separation Person-centered approach
J.Z. conceived of the study and participated in the interpretation of the data, perform the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript; Q.L. helped to draft the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the data; L.W. helped to perform the statistical analysis and participated in the interpretation of the data; L.L. helped to perform the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript; W.Z. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was supported by the National Project for Educational Sciences Planning in China (grant number: Project No. CBA130126).
Data Sharing and Declaration
This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the ethics committee on human experimentation of Shandong Normal University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- All-China Women’s Federation. (2013). China’s rural left-behind children, rural and urban migrant children research report. Retrieved from: http://acwf.people.com.cn/n/2013/0510/c99013-21437965.html.
- Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, volume 1: Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Broidy, L., Nagin, D., Tremblay, R., Bates, J., Brame, B., Dodge, K., & Vitaro, F. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39, 222–245. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.168.Google Scholar
- Cook, E. C., Pflieger, J. C., Connell, A. M., & Connell, C. M. (2015). Do specific transitional patterns of antisocial behavior during adolescence increase risk of problems in young adulthood? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(1), 95–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9880-y.Google Scholar
- Ding, X., Liu, J., Coplan, R. J., Chen, X., Li, D., & Sang, B. (2014). Self-reported shyness in Chinese children: Validation of the children’s shyness questionnaire, and exploration of its links with adjustment and the role of coping. Personality & Individual Differences, 68(4), 183–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.027.Google Scholar
- Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. H. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123–174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Elder, G. H., Shanahan, M. J., & Jennings, J. A. (2015). Human Development in Time and Place. In: Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science (7th ed., pp. 6-54). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Fan, F., & Sang, B. (2005). Absence of parental upbringing and liushou children’s personality, academic achievements as well as behavior problems. Psychological Science, 28, 855–858. https://doi.org/10.16719/j.cnki.1671-6981.2005.04.022.Google Scholar
- Givaudan, M., & Pick, S. (2013). Children left behind: How to mitigate the effects and facilitate emotional and psychosocial development: Supportive community networks can diminish the negative effects of parental migration. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(12), 1080–1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.019.Google Scholar
- Hou, J., Zou, H., & Li, X. W. (2009). The characteristics of the family environment and its influence on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Psychological Development and Education, (02), 48-54. https://doi.org/10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2009.02.022.
- Keiley, M. K., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). Differential risks of covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and internalizing behavior across ages 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 267–283. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023277413027.Google Scholar
- Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s depression inventory manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
- Lamb, M. E. (2015). Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Socioemotional processes (Vol. 3). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Lerner, R. M., Villarruel, F. A., & Castellino, D. R. (1999). Adolescence. In W. K. Silverman & T. H. Ollendick (Eds), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children (pp. 125–136). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Leung, P. W. L., Kwong, S. L., Tang, C. P., Ho, T. P., Hung, S. F., Lee, C. C., & Liu, W. S. (2006). Test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Chinese version of CBCL, TRF, and YSR. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(9), 970–973. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01570.x.Google Scholar
- Li, Y., & Xiang, J. (2010). The research on parent-child relationships in left-behind children view. Social Psychological Science, 25, 248–251.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, D., & Bergman, L. R. (1988). Individual and variable-based approaches to longitudinal research on early risk factors. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Studies of psychosocial risk: The power of longitudinal data (pp. 45–61). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism Clinical & Experimental Research, 24(6), 882–891. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb02070.x.Google Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2011). National Bureau of Statistics of People’s Republic of China on major figures of the 2010 population census. Retrieved from 20 Jun 2018, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-04/28/content_12415526.htm.
- Rescorla, L., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., & Verhulst, F. (2007). Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.2.351.Google Scholar
- Steinberg, L. (2014). Adolescence. 10th ed New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Sun, X. J., Zhou, Z. K., Wang, Y., & Fan, C. Y. (2010). Loneliness of children left in rural areas and its relation to peer relationship. Psychological Science, 33(2), 337–340. https://doi.org/10.16719/j.cnki.1671-6981.2010.02.058.Google Scholar
- Vermunt, J. K., & Magidson, J. (2002). Latent class cluster analysis. In J. A. Hagenaars, A. L. McCutcheon, (eds.) Applied latent class analysis. (https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499531.004. 89–106). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Wang, L., Feng, Z., Yang, G., Yang, Y., Dai, Q., Hu, C., & Zhao, M. (2015). The epidemiological characteristics of depressive symptoms in the left-behind children and adolescents of Chongqing in China. Journal of Affective Disorders, 177, 36–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.002.Google Scholar
- Wang, X., Hu, X., & Shen, J. (2011). Affection of left-behind children’s friendship quality on loneliness and depression. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19, 252–254. https://doi.org/10.16128/j.cnki.1005-3611.2011.02.024.Google Scholar
- Wei, X., Lv, N., Ji, L. Q., Chen, L., & Zhang, W. (2015). Children’s prosocial behavior and their psychosocial adjustment. Psychological Development and Education, 31(4), 402–410. https://doi.org/10.16187/j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2015.04.03.Google Scholar
- Yang, Q., Zhou, L., Hu, Y., Zhu., C., & Sun, H. (2014). Influence of parent-adolescent communication on behavioral problems of left-behind children. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1118–1120. https://doi.org/10.16128/j.cnki.1005-3611.2014.06.037.Google Scholar
- Yu, D. W., & Li, X. (2000). Children’s depression inventory: The application in China. Chinese Journal of Mental Health, 4, 225–227. https://doi.org/10.3321/j.issn:1000-6729.2000.04.003.Google Scholar
- Zhang, W., Zhang, L., Chen, L., Ji, L., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2018). Developmental changes in longitudinal associations between academic achievement and psychopathological symptoms from late childhood to middle adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 178–188. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12927.Google Scholar
- Zhao, J., Liu, X., & Zhang, W. (2013). Peer rejection, peer acceptance and psychological adjustment of left-behind children: The roles of parental cohesion and children’s cultural beliefs about adversity. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(7), 797–810. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00797.Google Scholar