Protecting High-Risk Youth in High-Risk Contexts: Neighborhoods, Parenting, and Victimization
Victimization theories suggest parents can serve as guardians to protect adolescents from victimization, yet findings from studies examining the main effects of parenting variables on adolescent victimization are mixed. Prior research suggests that it is the combination of parental warmth and monitoring that produces the best results across a range of other outcomes. The current study used data collected from a sample of serious adolescent offenders as part of the Pathways to Desistance study (N = 888; 16.1% female; mean age = 15.92). Using the first two waves (baseline and 6-month time points) of data, we estimated a series of negative binomial regression models to observe the main and interactive effects of parental warmth and monitoring on adolescent victimization and the potential moderating influence of neighborhood disorder. The results indicate that the combination of warmth and monitoring reduces adolescent victimization, and that parental warmth may be particularly important for protecting adolescents in neighborhoods with moderate-high levels of disorder.
KeywordsVictimization Adolescents Parenting Neighborhoods
M. T. conceived of the study, participated in its design, and drafted the manuscript. J. R. conceived of the study, participated in its design, performed statistical analyses, and helped to draft the manuscript. M. H. helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Data Sharing Declaration
This study uses public-use data from the Pathways to Desistance study. The Pathways data are archived at the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at the University of Michigan and can be accessed at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/29961.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The Pathways to Desistance data were collected using informed consent procedures and parent consent was obtained for all participants under the age of 18 at the time of enrollment.
- Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Caspi, A. (1993). Why maladaptive behaviors persist: Sources of continuity and change across the life course. In D. C. Funder, R. D. Parke, C. Tomlinson-Keasey & K. Widaman (Eds.), Studying lives through time: Personality and development (pp. 343–376). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Shattuck, A., Hamby, S., & Kracke, K. (2015). Children’s exposure to violence, crime, and abuse: An update. Laurel, MD: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Hindelang, M. J., Gottfredson, M. R., & Garofalo, J. (1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Kerns, K. A., Aspelmeier, J. E., Gentzler, A. L., & Grabill, C. M. (2001). Parent-child attachment and monitoring in middle childhood. Family Psychology, 15, 68–81.Google Scholar
- Mulvey, E. P. Research on pathways to desistance [Maricopa County, AZ and Philadelphia County, PA]: Subject Measures, 2000–2010. ICPSR29961-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-01-07. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR29961.v2
- StataCorp. (2017). Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.Google Scholar
- Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 19–36.Google Scholar
- Wilcox, P., Land, K. C., & Hunt, S. A. (2003). Criminal circumstance: A dynamic multicontextual criminal opportunity theory. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar