Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 8, pp 1697–1711 | Cite as

Organized Activity Involvement among Urban Youth: Understanding Family- and Neighborhood- Level Characteristics as Predictors of Involvement

  • Nicole A. Anderson
  • Amy M. Bohnert
  • Amy Governale
Empirical Research
  • 225 Downloads

Abstract

Research examining factors that predict youth’s involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents’ involvement in organized activities concurrently (i.e., intensity) and longitudinally (i.e., type and breadth). Parental supervision predicted adolescents’ participation in organized activities across multiple waves. Neighborhood violence was positively associated with concurrent participation in organized activities after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), whereas higher neighborhood collective efficacy predicted greater breadth in organized activity participation across time. These findings have important implications regarding how to attract and sustain organized activity participation for low-income, urban youth.

Keywords

Organized activities Parental warmth Supervision Neighborhood collective efficacy Neighborhood violence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the primary funders of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods: the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the National Institute of Justice. We would also like to acknowledge the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data for providing access to the data.

Author Contributions

N.A.A. conceived of the study, participated in the design of the study, statistical analyses and data interpretation, and drafted the manuscript. A.B. participated in the design of the study, data interpretation, and helped to draft the manuscript. A.G. participated in the literature review for the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

There is no funding to report.

Data Sharing Declaration

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the National Archive of Criminal Justice, but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. However, data are available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the National Archive of Criminal Justice.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

References

  1. Anderson, J. C., Funk, J. B., Elliott, R., & Smith, P. H. (2003). Parental support and pressure and children’s extracurricular activities: Relationships with amount of involvement and affective experience of participation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 241–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(03)00046-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antunes, M. J. & Ahlin, E. M. (2014). Family management and youth violence: Are parents or community more salient? Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 316–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohnert, A. M., & Garber, J. (2007). Prospective relations between organized activity participation and psychopathology during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 1021–1033.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9152-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bohnert, A., Fredricks, J., & Randall, E. (2010). Capturing unique dimensions of youth organized activity involvement: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Review of Educational Research, 80, 576–610.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654310364533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R. (1984). Home observation for measurement of the environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
  6. Camacho, D. E., & Fuligni, A. J. (2015). Extracurricular participation among adolescents from immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 1251–1262.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0105-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carver, P .R., & Iruka, I. U. (2006). National household education surveys program of 2005 after-school programs and activities: 2005. ED TAB. NCES 2006-076. National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  8. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawes, N. P., Modecki, K. L., Gonzales, N., Dumka, L., & Millsap, R. (2015). Mexican-origin youth participation in extracurricular activities: Predicting trajectories of involvement from 7th to 12th grade. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 2172–2188.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0284-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dearing, E., Wimer, C., Simpkins, S. D., Lund, T., Bouffard, S. M., Caronongan, P., & Weiss, H. (2009). Do neighborhood and home contexts help explain why low-income children miss opportunities to participate in activities outside of school? Developmental Psychology, 45, 1545–1562.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dynarski, M., Moore, M., James-Burdumy, S., Rosenberg, L., Deke, J., & Mansfield, W. (2004). When schools stay open late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. New Findings. Executive Summary. US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  12. Eccles, J., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J., & Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In Spence, J. T. (ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  13. Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 10–43.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558499141003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2016). Trajectories of organized activity participation among urban adolescents: An analysis of predisposing factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 225–238.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0267-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Faraway, J. J. (2006). Extending the linear model with R: Generalized linear, mixed effects and nonparametric regression models. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Fauth, R. C., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth’s after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis. Developmental Psychology, 43, 760–777.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.760.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fletcher, A. C., Elder, G. H. J., & Mekos, D. (2000). Parental influences on adolescent involvement in community activities. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 29–48.  https://doi.org/10.1207/SJRA1001_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furstenberg, F., Cook, T., Eccles, J., Elder, G., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families in adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gardner, M., & Brooks‐Gunn, J. (2009). Adolescents’ exposure to community violence: are neighborhood youth organizations protective? Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 505–525.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20310.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Graber, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1996). Transitions and turning points: Navigating the passage from childhood through adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 32, 768–776.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.32.4.768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huebner, A. J., & Mancini, J. A. (2003). Shaping structured out-of-school time use among youth: The effects of self, family, and friend systems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 453–463.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025990419215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacobs, J. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Parents, task values, and real-life achievement-related choices. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewics (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 405–439). San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  24. Jacobs, J. E., Vernon, M. K., & Eccles, J. (2005). Activity choices in middle childhood: The roles of gender, self-beliefs, and parents’ influence. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 235–254). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Jarrett, R. L. (1999). Successful parenting in high-risk neighborhoods. The Future of Children.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1602704
  26. Jarrett, R. L., & Jefferson, S. R. (2003). A good mother got to fight for her kids: Maternal management strategies in a high-risk, African-American neighborhood. Journal of Children and Poverty, 9, 21–39.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1079612022000052706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, B. R., Jang, S. J., De Li, S., & Larson, D. (2000). The ‘invisible institution’ and Black youth crime: The church as an agency of local social control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 479–498.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005114610839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., Biesecker, G., & Ferrer‐Wreder, L. (2003). Relationships with parents and peers in adolescence. In I. B. Weiner (Ed.), Handbook of psychology (pp. 395–419).  https://doi.org/10.1002/0471264385.wei0616.
  29. Larson, R. W., Hansen, D. M., & Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42, 849–863. https://doi.org/10/1037/0012-1649.42.5.849.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Laughlin, L. (2014). A child’s day: Living arrangements, nativity, and family transitions: 2011 (Selected indicators of child well being). (Research Report No. P70-139). U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p70-139.pdf.
  31. Leff, S. S., & Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Young athletes’ perceptions of parental support and pressure. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–337.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewko, J. H., & Ewing, M. E. (1980). Sex differences and parental influence in sport involvement of children. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 62–68.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.1.62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school, and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Mahoney, J. L., Vandell, D. L., Simpkins, S., & Zarrett, N. (2009). Adolescent out‐of‐school activities. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 1–42).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy002008.
  36. Maimon, D., & Browning, C. R. (2010). Unstructured socializing, collective efficacy, and violent behavior among urban youth. Criminology, 48, 443–474.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00192.x/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marsh, H., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 464–515.  https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.72.4.051388703v7v7736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin, K. R., & Schoua-Glusberg, A. (2002). Project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods longitudinal cohort study: Field data collection report. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  39. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. In J. Eccles, J. A. Gootman (Eds.), Board on children, youth, and families, division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pedersen, S., & Seidman, E. (2005). Contexts and correlates of out-of-school activity participation among low-income urban adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 85–109). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Persson, A., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2007). Staying in or moving away from structured activities: Explanations involving parents and peers. Developmental Psychology, 43, 197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Piha, S. (2010, December 14). Serving the needs of Latino youth [Web log post]. http://blog.learninginafterschool.org/2010/12/serving-needs-of-latino-youth.html.
  43. Rose-Krasnor, L., Busseri, M. A., Willoughby, T., & Chalmers, H. (2006). Breadth and intensity of youth activity involvement as contexts for positive development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 385–399.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9037-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5328.918.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Schwartz, K., Cappella, E., & Seidman, E. (2015). Extracurricular participation and course performance in the middle grades: A study of low-income, urban youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56, 307–320.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-015-9752-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Brody, G. H., & Cutrona, C. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community- and family-level processes. Criminology, 43(4), 989–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2005.00031.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Simpkins, S. D., Delgado, M. Y., Price, C. D., Quach, A., & Starbuck, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: Examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents’ organized activity participation. Developmental Psychology, 49, 706–721.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Simpkins, S. D., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Parents’ socializing behavior and children’s participation in math, science, and computer out-of-school activities. Applied Developmental Science, 9, 14–30.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532480xads0901_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Simpkins, S. D., Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Charting the Eccles’ expectancy-value model from mothers’ beliefs in childhood to youths’ activities in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1019–1032.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Vandell, D. L., Larson, R. W., Mahoney, J. L., & Watts, T. W. (2015). Children’s organized activities. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 1–40).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy408
  51. Von Hippel, P. T. (2007). Regression with missing Ys: An improved strategy for analyzing multiply imputed data. Sociological Methodology, 37, 83–117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9531.2007.00180.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wimer, C., Bouffard, S., Caronongan, P., Daring, E., Simpkins, S. D., Little, P.M.D., Simpkins-Chaput, S. et al. (2006). What are kids getting into these days? Demographic differences in youth out-of-school time participation. Harvard Family Research Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Loyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations