Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 10, pp 2073–2087 | Cite as

Neighborhood or School? Influences on Alcohol Consumption and Heavy Episodic Drinking Among Urban Adolescents

  • Willy Pedersen
  • Anders Bakken
  • Tilmann von Soest
Empirical Research
  • 562 Downloads

Abstract

Little is known about the relative influences of neighborhood and school on the alcohol socialization process. Survey data from the Young in Oslo Study (N = 10,038, mean age 17.1 years, 52% girls) were used to investigate the details of such influences, using cross-classified multilevel models. School and neighborhood contexts were equally important for ordinary alcohol use; however, neighborhood influences were mainly explained by individual and family factors, whereas peer-based sociocultural processes played a key role in explaining school effects. Neither context had much impact on heavy episodic drinking. The study suggests that “privileged” youth may be at risk of high alcohol consumption. Parental influences and peer-based sociocultural aspects of the school milieu should be considered in prevention efforts.

Key words

Neighborhood School Alcohol Alcohol problems Cross-classified models 

Notes

Authors’ Contributions

W.P. conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination and led the drafting of the manuscript. A.B. led the data collection, participated in the design, performed the statistical analysis, participated in the interpretation of the results and helped to draft the manuscript. T.v.S. participated in the design, suggested appropriate statistical techniques, participated in the interpretation of the results and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Data Sharing Declaration

The data that support the findings of this study are available from Norwegian Social Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available.

Funding

The study received funding from Research Council of Norway (grant # 240129). Data collection was financed by the Municipality of Oslo and the Norwegian Directorate of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All ethical aspects of the study were approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data.

Informed Consent

All parents and students were informed about the purpose of the study in advance and told that participation was voluntary. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Amundsen, E. J. (2012). Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: A multi-ethnic comparison. BMC Public Health, 12.Google Scholar
  2. Barth, E., Moene, K. O., & Willumsen, F. (2014). The Scandinavian model—An interpretation. Journal of Public Economics, 117, 60–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borsari, B., Murphy, J. G., & Barnett, N. P. (2007). Predictors of alcohol use during the first year of college: Implications for prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 32(10), 2062–2086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brannstrom, L. (2008). Making their mark: The effects of neighbourhood and upper secondary school on educational achievement. European Sociological Review, 24(4), 463–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brick, J. M., & Kalton, G. (1996). Handling missing data in survey research. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 5, 215–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In: R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 739–828). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, T. L., Parks, G. S., Zimmerman, R. S., & Phillips, C. M. (2001). The role of religion in predicting adolescent alcohol use and problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(5), 696–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryden, A., Roberts, B., Petticrew, M., & McKee, M. (2013). A systematic review of the influence of community level social factors on alcohol use. Health & Place, 21, 70–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlson, P., & Almquist, Y. B. (2016). Are area-level effects just a proxy for school-level effects? Socioeconomic differences in alcohol consumption patterns among Swedish adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 166, 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cashin, J. R., Presley, C. A., & Meilman, P. W. (1998). Alcohol use in the Greek system: Follow the leader? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(1), 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerda, M., Diez-Roux, A. V., Tchetgen, E. T., Gordon-Larsen, P., & Kiefe, C. (2010). The relationship between neighborhood poverty and alcohol use: Estimation by marginal structural models. Epidemiology, 21(4), 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chatterton, P., & Hollands, R. (2003). Urban nightscapes: Youth cultures, pleasure spaces and corporate power.. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chuang, Y. C., Ennett, S. T., Bauman, K. E., & Foshee, V. A. (2005). Neighborhood influences on adolescent cigarette and alcohol use: Mediating effects through parent and peer behaviors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(2), 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cotton, S., Zebracki, K., Rosenthal, S. L., Tsevat, J., & Drotar, D. (2006). Religion/spirituality and adolescent health outcomes: A review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4), 472–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie, C., Molcho, M., Boyce, W., Holstein, B., Torsheim, T., & Richter, M. (2008). Researching health inequalities in adolescents: The development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Family Affluence Scale. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1429–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Beeck, H., Pauwels, L. J. R., & Put, J. (2012). Schools, strain and offending: Testing a school contextual version of General Strain Theory. European Journal of Criminology, 9(1), 52–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunn, E. C., Richmond, T. K., Milliren, C. E., & Subramanian, S. V. (2015). Using cross-classified multilevel models to disentangle school and neighborhood effects: An example focusing on smoking behaviors among adolescents in the United States. Health & Place, 31, 224–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fagan, A. A., & Wright, E. M. (2012). The effects of neighborhood context on youth violence and delinquency: does gender matter? Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 10(1), 64–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fjaer, E. G., Pedersen, W., & Sandberg, S. (2016). Party on wheels: Mobile party spaces in the Norwegian high school graduation celebration. British Journal of Sociology, 67(2), 328–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fujimoto, K., & Valente, T. W. (2013). Alcohol peer influence of participating in organized school activities: a network approach. Health Psychology, 32(10), 1084–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Tracy, M., & Vlahov, D. (2007). Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6), S195–S202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldstein, H. (2003). Multilevel statistical models (3rd ed.). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  23. Henry, K. L., Stanley, L. R., Edwards, R. W., Harkabus, L. C., & Chapin, L. A. (2009). Individual and contextual effects of school adjustment on adolescent alcohol use. Prevention Science, 10(3), 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoof, J., Mulder, J., Korte, J., Postel, M., & Pieterse, M. (2012). Dutch adolescent drinking places. Alcohol, 46, 687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson, N., Denny, S., Sheridan, J., Zhao, J. F., & Ameratunga, S. (2016). The role of neighborhood disadvantage, physical disorder, and collective efficacy in adolescent alcohol use: a multilevel path analysis. Health & Place, 41, 24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Janssen, I., Boyce, W. F., Simpson, K., & Pickett, W. (2006). Influence of individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic status on obesity, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity in Canadian adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(1), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karriker-Jaffe, K. J. (2011). Areas of disadvantage: A systematic review of effects of area-level socioeconomic status on substance use outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(1), 84–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karriker-Jaffe, K. J. (2013). Neighborhood socioeconomic status and substance use by U.S. adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(1), 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., Zemore, S. E., Mulia, N., Jones-Webb, R., Bond, J., & Greenfield, T. K. (2012). Neighborhood disadvantage and adult alcohol outcomes: Differential risk by race and gender. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(6), 865–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, Y. S. (2016). Examination of the relative effects of neighborhoods and schools on juvenile delinquency: A multilevel cross-classified model approach. Deviant Behavior, 37(10), 1196–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kravitz-Wirtz, N. (2016). A discrete-time analysis of the effects of more prolonged exposure to neighborhood poverty on the risk of smoking initiation by age 25. Social Science & Medicine, 148, 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuipers, M. A. G., Jongeneel-Grimen, B., Droomers, M., Wingen, M., Stronks, K., & Kunst, A. E. (2013). Why residents of Dutch deprived neighbourhoods are less likely to be heavy drinkers: The role of individual and contextual characteristics. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67(7), 587–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kuntsche, E., Rehm, J., & Ghmel, G. (2004). Characteristics of binge drinking in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luthar, S. S., & Barkin, S. H. (2012). Are affluent youth truly at risk? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Luthar, S. S., Barkin, S. H., & Crossman, E. J. (2013). I can, therefore I must: Fragility in the upper-middle classes. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4), 1529–1549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lyman, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Further evidence on the costs of privilege: Perfectionism in high-achieving youth at socioeconomic extremes. Psychology in the Schools, 51(9), 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martineau, F., Tyner, E., Lorenc, T., Petticrew, M., & Lock, K. (2013). Opulation-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: An overview of systematic reviews. Preventive Medicine, 57(4), 278–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mathur, C., Erickson, D. J., Stigler, M. H., Forster, J. L., & Finnegan, J. R. (2013). Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status effects on adolescent smoking: A multilevel cohort-sequential latent growth analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 103(3), 543–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nordfjaern, T., & Brunborg, G. S. (2015). Associations between human values and alcohol consumption among Norwegians in the second half of life. Substance Use & Misuse, 50(10), 1284–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Osgood, D. W., Ragan, D. T., Wallace, L., Gest, S. D., Feinberg, M. E., & Moody, J. (2013). Peers and the emergence of alcohol use: Influence and selection processes in adolescent friendship networks. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 500–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pedersen, W., & Bakken, A. (2016). Urban landscapes of adolescent substance use. Acta Sociologica, 59(2), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pedersen, W., Bakken, A., & von oest, T. (2015). Adolescents from affluent city districts drink more alcohol than others. Addiction, 110(10), 1595–1604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pedersen, W., & Kolstad, A. (2000). Adolescent alcohol abstainers: Traditional patterns in new groups. Acta Sociologica, 43(3), 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pedersen, W., & von Soest, T. (2013). Socialization to binge drinking: A population-based, longitudinal study with emphasis on parental influences. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(2), 587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quon, E. C., & McGrath, J. J. (2014). Subjective socioeconomic status and adolescent health: a meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 33(5), 433–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rossow, I., & Storvoll, E. E. (2014). Long-term trends in alcohol policy attitudes in Norway. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33(3), 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ryan, S. M., Jorm, A. F., & Lubman, D. I. (2010). Parenting factors assoiated with reduced adolescent alcohol use: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 774–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Salvy, S. J., Pedersen, E. R., Miles, J. N. V., Tucker, J. S., & D’Amico, E. J. (2014). Proximal and distal social influence on alcohol consumption and marijuana use among middle school adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 144, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sampson, R. J. (2005). How does community context matter? Social mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In: P. -O. Wikstrom, R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The explanation of crime: Contexts, mechanisms and development (pp. 31–60). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Raudenbush, S. (2005). Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 224–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sande, A. (2002). Intoxication and rite of passage to adulthood in Norway. Contemporary Drug Problems, 29, 277–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scott-Sheldon, L. A. J., Carey, K. B., Kaiser, T. S., Knight, J. M., & Carey, M. P. (2016). Alcohol interventions for Greek Letter Organizations: A systematic review and meta-analysis, 1987 to 2014. Health Psychology, 35(7), 670–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stimpson, J. P., Ju, H., Raji, M. A., & Eschbach, K. (2007). Neighborhood deprivation and health risk behaviors in NHANES III. American Journal of Health Behavior, 31(2), 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sykes, B., & Musterd, S. (2011). Examining neighbourhood and school effects simultaneously: What does the Dutch evidence show? Urban Studies, 48(7), 1307–1331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Teunissen, H. A., Spijkerman, R., Prinstein, M. J., Cohen, G. L., Engels, R., & Scholte, R. H. J. (2012). Adolescents’ conformity to their peers’ pro-alcohol and anti-alcohol norms: The power of popularity. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(7), 1257–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Toft, M., & Ljunggren, J. (2016). Geographies of class advantage: The influence of adolescent neighbourhoods in Oslo. Urban Studies, 53(14), 2939–2955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Viner, R. M., Ozer, E. M., Denny, S., Marmot, M., Resnick, M., Fatusi, A., & Currie, C. (2012). Adolescent Health 2 Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet, 379(9826), 1641–1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Welsh, W. N., Greene, J. R., & Jenkins, P. H. (1999). School disorder: The influence of individual, institutional, and community factors. Criminology, 37(1), 73–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. White, I. R., Royston, P., & Wood, A. M. (2011). Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice. Statistics in Medicine, 30, 377–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zimmerman, G. M. (2010). Impulsivity, Offending, and the neighborhood: Investigating the person-context nexus. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 26(3), 301–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Human GeographyUniversity of OsloBlindernNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Social ResearchOslo and Akershus University College of Applied SciencesOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloBlindernNorway
  4. 4.Norway and Norwegian Social ResearchOslo and Akershus University College of Applied SciencesStensberggataNorway

Personalised recommendations