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Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 1052–1072 | Cite as

Age Patterns in Risk Taking Across the World

  • Natasha Duell
  • Laurence Steinberg
  • Grace Icenogle
  • Jason Chein
  • Nandita Chaudhary
  • Laura Di Giunta
  • Kenneth A. Dodge
  • Kostas A. Fanti
  • Jennifer E. Lansford
  • Paul Oburu
  • Concetta Pastorelli
  • Ann T. Skinner
  • Emma Sorbring
  • Sombat Tapanya
  • Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado
  • Liane Peña Alampay
  • Suha M. Al-Hassan
  • Hanan M. S. Takash
  • Dario Bacchini
  • Lei Chang
Empirical Research

Abstract

Epidemiological data indicate that risk behaviors are among the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consistent with this, laboratory-based studies of age differences in risk behavior allude to a peak in adolescence, suggesting that adolescents demonstrate a heightened propensity, or inherent inclination, to take risks. Unlike epidemiological reports, studies of risk taking propensity have been limited to Western samples, leaving questions about the extent to which heightened risk taking propensity is an inherent or culturally constructed aspect of adolescence. In the present study, age patterns in risk-taking propensity (using two laboratory tasks: the Stoplight and the BART) and real-world risk taking (using self-reports of health and antisocial risk taking) were examined in a sample of 5227 individuals (50.7% female) ages 10–30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 Western and non-Western countries (China, Colombia, Cyprus, India, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the US). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) risk taking follows an inverted-U pattern across age groups, peaking earlier on measures of risk taking propensity than on measures of real-world risk taking, and (2) age patterns in risk taking propensity are more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Overall, risk taking followed the hypothesized inverted-U pattern across age groups, with health risk taking evincing the latest peak. Age patterns in risk taking propensity were more consistent across countries than age patterns in real-world risk taking. Results suggest that although the association between age and risk taking is sensitive to measurement and culture, around the world, risk taking is generally highest among late adolescents.

Keywords

Adolescents Risk taking Development Cross-national 

Notes

Funding

This research was supported by an award to Laurence Steinberg from the Klaus J. Jacobs Foundation and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant RO1-HD054805.

Authors’ Contributions

ND conceived of the study, participated in its design, performed the statistical analyses, participated in interpretation of the data, and drafted the manuscript; LS conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, participated in interpretation of the data, and helped to draft the manuscript; GI participated in the study design and in interpretation of the data; JC gave final approval of the manuscript; NC was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; LD was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; KAD was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; KAF was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; JEL was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; PO was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; CP was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; ATS was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; ES was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; ST was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; LUT was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; LPA was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; SMA was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; HMST was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; LC was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript; and DB was involved in the acquisition of the data and gave final approval of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natasha Duell
    • 1
  • Laurence Steinberg
    • 2
  • Grace Icenogle
    • 1
  • Jason Chein
    • 1
  • Nandita Chaudhary
    • 3
  • Laura Di Giunta
    • 4
  • Kenneth A. Dodge
    • 5
  • Kostas A. Fanti
    • 6
  • Jennifer E. Lansford
    • 5
  • Paul Oburu
    • 7
  • Concetta Pastorelli
    • 4
  • Ann T. Skinner
    • 5
  • Emma Sorbring
    • 8
  • Sombat Tapanya
    • 9
  • Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado
    • 10
  • Liane Peña Alampay
    • 11
  • Suha M. Al-Hassan
    • 12
  • Hanan M. S. Takash
    • 13
  • Dario Bacchini
    • 14
  • Lei Chang
    • 15
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyTemple University and King Abdulaziz UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human Development and Childhood StudiesLady Irwin College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversità di Roma “La Sapienza”RomaItaly
  5. 5.Center for Child and Family PolicyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CyprusKallipoleosCyprus
  7. 7.Department of Educational PsychologyMaseno UniversityMasenoKenya
  8. 8.Department of PsychologyUniversity WestTrollhättanSweden
  9. 9.Department of PsychiatryChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  10. 10.Consultorio Psicológico PopularUniversidad San BuenaventuraMedellínColombia
  11. 11.Department of PsychologyAteneo de Manila UniversityMetro ManilaPhilippines
  12. 12.Hashemite University and Emirates College for Advanced EducationAl ZafranahUnited Arab Emirates
  13. 13.Queen Rania Faculty for ChildhoodHashemite UniversityZarqaJordan
  14. 14.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”CasertaItaly
  15. 15.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauZhuhai ShiChina

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