Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 383–397 | Cite as

And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth’s Intergroup Attitudes

  • Katharina Eckstein
  • Jan Šerek
  • Peter Noack
Empirical Research

Abstract

Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other’s intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings’ intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings’ attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings’ intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings’ intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings’ social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

Keywords

Siblings Political socialization Family Youth Intergroup attitudes Intolerance 

Notes

Funding

This research was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG, FOR 481, No 213/9-4) by financial aid given to the third author. The work of the second author was supported by the Grant Agency of the Masaryk University (Grant No MUNI/M/1748/2014).

Authors' Contributions

K.E., J.S., and P.N. conceived of the study. K. E. participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript. K. E. and J. S. conducted the analyses for the study. J.S. also drafted parts of the manuscript and participated in the interpretation of the data. P.N. participated in the design, data collection, and participated in the interpretation of the data. All authors read, edited, and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10964_2017_713_MOESM1_ESM.docx (72 kb)
Supplementary Information

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Alford, J. R., Funk, C. L., Hibbing, J. R. (2005). Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review, 99, 153–167. doi: 10.1017/S0003055405051579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alozie, N. O., Simon, J., Merril, B. D. (2003). Gender and political orientation in childhood. The Social Science Journal, 40(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1016/S0362-3319(02)00255-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andeweg, R. B., & van den Berg, S. B. (2003). Linking birth order to political leadership: The impact of parents or sibling interaction? Political Psychology, 24(3), 605–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balke, D., El-Menouar, Y., Rastetter, R. U. (2002). Einschätzungen von Kosten durch Zuwanderer [Evaluation of costs caused by immigrants]. In A. Glöckner-Rist (Ed.), ZUMA-Informationssystem. Elektronisches Handbuch sozialwissenschaftlicher Erhebungsinstrumente. Mannheim, Germany: Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1992). Social cognitive theory of social referencing. In S. Feinman (Ed.), Social referencing and the social construction of reality in infancy (pp. 175–208). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchey, H. A., Shoulberg, E. K., Jodl, K. M., Eccles, J. S. (2010). Longitudinal links between older sibling features and younger siblings’ academic adjustment during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 197–211. doi:10.1037/a0017487.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., McCoy, J. K. (1992). Parental differential treatment of siblings and sibling differences in negative emotionality. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54(3), 643–651. doi: 10.2307/353250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broh, A. C. (1981). Siblings and political socialization: A closer look at the direct transmission thesis. Political Psychology, 3(1/2), 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bu, F. (2016). Examining sibling configuration effects on young people’s educational aspiration and attainment. Advances in Life Course Research, 27, 69–79. doi: 10.1016/j.alcr.2015.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buhrmester, D. (1992). The developmental course of sibling and peer relationships. In F. Boer & J. Dunn (Eds.), Children’s sibling relationships: Developmental and clinical issues (pp. 19–40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Buhrmester, D., & Furman, W. (1990). Perceptions of sibling relationships during middle childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 61(5), 1387–1398. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02869.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Campione-Barr, N., & Smetana, J. G. (2010). “Who said you could wear my sweater?” Adolescent siblings’ conflicts and associations with relationship quality. Child Development, 81(2), 464–471. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01407.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dalton, R. J. (1982). The pathways of parental socialization. American Politics Quarterly, 10(2), 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Jesús, S. A. R. (2016). The role of Mexican American siblings in adolescence and young adulthood. Dissertation Abstracts International, 76(9-B) (E), 111.Google Scholar
  17. Degner, J., & Dalege, J. (2013). The apple does not fall far from the tree, or does it? A meta-analysis of parent-child similarity in intergroup attitudes. Psychological Bulletin, 139(6), 1270–1304. doi: 10.1037/a0031436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dicke, K., Edinger, M., Schmitt, K. (2000). Politische Kultur im Freistaat Thüringen: Ergebnisse des Thüringen-Monitors 2000 [Political culture in the federal state of Thuringia: Results of the Thüringen Monitor 2000]. Erfurt, Germany: Drucksache des Thüringer Landtags 3/1106.Google Scholar
  19. Duckitt, J. (2001). A dual-process cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 41–113. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(01)80004-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunn, J., & Herrera, C. (1997). Conflict resolution with friends, siblings, and mothers: A developmental perspective. Aggressive Behavior, 23(5), 343–357. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1997)23:5<343::AID-AB4>3.0.CO;2-J.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feinberg, M. E., & Heatherington, E. M. (2000). Sibling differentiation in adolescence: Implications for behavioral genetic theory. Child Development, 71(6), 1512–1524. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fischer, R., Hanke, K., Sibley, C. G. (2012). Cultural and institutional determinants of social dominance orientation: A cross‐cultural meta‐analysis of 27 societies. Political Psychology, 33(4), 437–467. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00884.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaudreau, P., Franche, V., Gareau, A. (2016). A latent mediated moderation of perfectionism, motivation, and academic satisfaction: Advancing the 2 x 2 model of perfectionism through substantive-methodological synergy. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(7), 688–701. doi: 10.1177/0734282916651778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gniewosz, B., & Noack, P. (2015). Parental influences on adolescents’ negative attitudes toward immigrants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(9), 1787–1802. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0291-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Howe, N., Rinaldi, C. M., Jennings, M., Petrakos, H. (2002). “No! The lambs can stay out because they got cozies”: Constructive and destructive sibling conflict, pretend play, and social understanding. Child Development, 73(5), 1460–1473. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jeličič, H., Phelps, E., Lerner, R. M. (2009). Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: The persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1195–1199. doi: 10.1037/a0015665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jennings, M. K., Stoker, L., Bowers, J. (2009). Politics across generations: Family transmission reexamined. The Journal of Politics, 71(3), 782–799. doi: 10.1017/S0022381609090719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jugert, P., Eckstein, K., Beelmann, A., Noack, P. (2016). Parents’ influence on the development of their children’s ethnic intergroup attitudes: A longitudinal analysis from middle childhood to early adolescence. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13(2), 213–230. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2015.1084923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kämpfe, N. (2002). Persönlichkeit, soziale Einstellungen und Fremdenfeindlichkeit [Personality, social attitudes, and intolerance]. Unpublished diploma thesis, University of Jena.Google Scholar
  30. Kendler, K. S., Morris, N. A., Lönn, S. L., Sundquist, J., Sundquist, K. (2014). Environmental transmission of violent criminal behavior in siblings: A Swedish National Study. Psychological Medicine, 44(15), 3181–3187. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714000932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kerr, D., Sturman, L., Schulz, W., Bethan, B. (2010). ICCS 2009 European Report. Civic knowledge, attitudes and engagement among lower secondary school students in twenty-four European countries. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).Google Scholar
  32. Kleeberg-Niepage, A. (2012). Zur Entstehung von Rechtsextremismus im Jugendalter–oder: Lässt sich richtiges politisches Denken lernen? [Right-wing extremism of young people: Failed political socialization?]. Journal für Psychologie, 20(2), 1–30.Google Scholar
  33. Kracke, B., & Held, M. (1994). Dokumentation der Erhebungsinstrumente des Projekts “Individuation und sozialer Wandel” [Code book of the project ‘Individuation and social change’]. Unpublished report, University of Mannheim.Google Scholar
  34. Kroh, M. (2009). The preadult origins of postmaterialism: A longitudinal sibling study. European Journal of Political Research, 48(5), 598–621. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2009.00843.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198–1202. doi: 10.2307/2290157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151–173. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maccoby, E. E. (1990). Gender and relationships: A developmental account. American Psychologist, 45(4), 513–520. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.45.4.513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. McDevitt, M., & Chaffee, S. H. (2002). From top-down to trickle-up influence: Revisiting assumptions about the family in political socialization. Political Communication, 19(3), 281–301. doi: 10.1080/01957470290055501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McHale, S. M., Bissell, J., Kim, J. (2009). Sibling relationship, family, and genetic factors in sibling similarity in sexual risk. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(4), 562–572. doi: 10.1037/a0014982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. McHale, S. M., Updegraff, K. A., Helms-Erikson, H., Crouter, A. C. (2001). Sibling influences on gender development in middle childhood and early adolescence: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 37(1), 115–125. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.1.115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. McHale, S. M., Updegraff, K. A., Whiteman, S. D. (2012). Sibling relationships and influences in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(5), 913–930. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.01011.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Milevsky, A. (2016). Sibling issues in therapy: Research and practice with children, adolescents and adults. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Milla, M. N., Faturochman, Ancok, D. (2013). The impact of leader–follower interactions on the radicalization of terrorists: A case study of the Bali bombers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16(2), 92–100. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Minuchin, P. (1985). Families and individual development: Provocations from the field of family therapy. Child Development, 56(2), 289–302. doi: 10.2307/1129720.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Modry-Mandell, K. L., Gamble, W. C., Taylor, A. R. (2007). Family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality: Influences on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(1), 61–73. doi: 10.1007/s10826-006-9068-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  47. Noack, P. (2005). Schulbasierte Einflüsse auf die politisch-soziale (In-) Toleranz Jugendlicher [School-based effects on the political and social (in-)tolerance of juveniles]. Unpublished research report for the German Research Foundation (FOR 481/2), Jena, Germany.Google Scholar
  48. O’Bryan, M., Fishbein, H. D., Ritchey, P. N. (2004). Intergenerational transmission of prejudice, sex role stereotyping, and intolerance. Adolescence, 39(155), 407–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(4), 741–763. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Quent, M. (2012). Rechtsextremismus–ein ostdeutsches Problem? [Right-wing extremism – an East German problem?]. http://www.bpb.de/apuz/130415/rechtsextremismus-ein-ostdeutsches-phaenomen?p=all
  51. Schachter, F. F., Shore, E., Feldman-Rotman, S., Marquis, R. E., Campbell, S. (1976). Sibling deidentification. Developmental Psychology, 12(5), 418–427. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.12.5.418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schneewind, K. A., & Weiß, J. (1996). Der Fragebogen „Gesundheit und Stress–Dokumentation der Skalen [Scale documentation of the ‘health and stress’ questionnaire]. University of Munich, Germany.Google Scholar
  53. Sears, D. O., & Levy, S. (2003). Childhood and adult political development. In D. O. Sears, L. Huddy & R. Jervis (Eds.), Oxford handbook of political psychology (pp. 60–109). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Shanahan, L., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., Osgood, D. W. (2008). Linkages between parents’ differential treatment, youth depressive symptoms, and sibling relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(2), 480–494. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00495.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sherrod, L. R., Flanagan, C. A., Youniss, J. (2002). Dimensions of citizenship and opportunities for youth development: The what, why, when, where, and who of citizenship development. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 264–272. doi: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0604_14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Slomkowski, C., Rende, R., Conger, K. J., Simons, R. L., Conger, R. (2001). Sisters, brothers, and delinquency: Evaluating social influence during early and middle adolescence. Child Development, 72(1), 271–283. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Statistisches Bundesamt (2011). Wie leben Kinder in Deutschland? [How do children in Germany live?]. https://www.destatis.de/DE/PresseService/Presse/Pressekonferenzen/2011/Mikro_Kinder/pressebroschuere_kinder.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
  59. Stocker, C. M., Lanthier, R. P., Furman, W. (1997). Sibling relationships in early adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(2), 210–221. doi:10.1037/0893- 3200.11.2.210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Teti, D. M. (2002). Retrospect and prospect in the psychological study of sibling relationships. In J. P. McHale & W. S. Grolnick (Eds.), Retrospect and prospect in the psychological study of families (pp. 193–224). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (2011). Pressemitteilung 153/2014 (Press release 153/2014). http://www.statistik.thueringen.de/presse/2014/pr_153_14.pdf
  62. Trim, R. S., Leuthe, E., Chassin, L. (2006). Sibling influences on alcohol use in a young adult, high-risk sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 604–615. doi: 10.15288/jsa.2006.67.391.Google Scholar
  63. Tucker, C. J., Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. (1997). Advice about life plans and personal problems in late adolescent sibling relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(1), 63–76. doi: 10.1023/A:1024540228946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tucker, C. J., Updegraff, K. A., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C. (1999). Older siblings as socializers of younger siblings’ empathy. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(2), 176–198. doi: 10.1177/0272431699019002003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. United States Census Bureau (2011). Living Arrangements of Children: 2009. https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-126.pdf
  66. Urbatsch, R. (2011). Sibling ideological influence: A natural experiment. British Journal of Political Science, 41(4), 693–712. doi: 10.1017/S0007123411000093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Verba, S., Scholzman, K. L., Burns, N. (2005). Family ties: Understanding the intergenerational transmission of participation. In A. S. Zuckerman (Ed.), The social logic of politics: Personal networks as contexts for political behavior (pp. 95–117). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Vollebergh, W. A., Iedema, J., Raaijmakers, Q. A. (2001). Intergenerational transmission and the formation of cultural orientations in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(4), 1185–1198. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.01185.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Westholm, A. (1999). The perceptual pathway: Tracing the mechanisms of political value transfer across generations. Political Psychology, 20(3), 525–551. doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whiteman, S. D., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C. (2007). Competing processes of sibling influence: Observational learning and sibling deidentification. Social Development, 16(4), 642–661. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00409.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Whiteman, S. D., McHale, S. M., Soli, A. (2011). Theoretical perspectives on sibling relationships. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 3(2), 124–139. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-2589.2011.00087.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, S. T., Conger, K. J., Blozis, S. A. (2007). The development of interpersonal aggression during adolescence: The importance of parents, siblings, and family economics. Child Development, 78(5), 1526–1542. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.0108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Research on Children, Youth and FamilyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations