Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 261–276 | Cite as

Emotion Regulation Strategies in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review

  • Johanna Özlem SchäferEmail author
  • Eva Naumann
  • Emily Alexandra Holmes
  • Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
  • Andrea Christiane Samson
Empirical Research

Abstract

The role of emotion regulation in subclinical symptoms of mental disorders in adolescence is not yet well understood. This meta-analytic review examines the relationship between the habitual use of prominent adaptive emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, problem solving, and acceptance) and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (avoidance, suppression, and rumination) with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Analyzing 68 effect sizes from 35 studies, we calculated overall outcomes across depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as psychopathology-specific outcomes. Age was examined as a continuous moderator via meta-regression models. The results from random effects analyses revealed that the habitual use of all emotion regulation strategies was significantly related to depressive and anxiety symptoms overall, with the adaptive emotion regulation strategies showing negative associations (i.e., less symptoms) with depressive and anxiety symptoms whereas the maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed positive associations (i.e., more symptoms). A less frequent use of adaptive and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms comparably in the respective directions. Regarding the psychopathology-specific outcomes, depressive and anxiety symptoms displayed similar patterns across emotion regulation strategies showing the strongest negative associations with acceptance, and strongest positive associations with avoidance and rumination. The findings underscore the relevance of adaptive and also maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth, and highlight the need to further investigate the patterns of emotion regulation as a potential transdiagnostic factor.

Keywords

Emotion regulation strategies Meta-analysis Adaptive Maladaptive Youth Psychopathologies 

Notes

Disclaimer

The funders had no role in the design of the review, collection, analysis or interpretation of the literature, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the German Scholarship Foundation, the Medical Research Council, or the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Funding

Johanna Schäfer is supported by the German Scholarship foundation. Emily Holmes is supported by the Medical Research Council (United Kingdom) intramural programme [MRC-A060-5PR50]. Andrea Samson is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) [grant number PZ00P1-154937].

Authors’ Contributions

JS conceived of the study, conducted the literature search and the meta-analytic calculations and wrote the manuscript; EN conceived of the study, conducted the literature search and the meta-analytic calculations and wrote the manuscript; EAH conceived of the study, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript; BTC conceived of the study, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript; ACS conceived of the study, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.Google Scholar
  2. Abela, J. R. Z., Brozina, K., & Haigh, E. P. (2002). An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third- and seventh-grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(5), 515–527. doi: 10.1023/A:1019873015594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. *Abela, J. R. Z., Parkinson, C., Stolow, D., & Starrs, C. (2009). A test of the integration of the hopelessness and response styles theories of depression in middle adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 354–364. doi: 10.1080/15374410902851630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abela, J. R. Z., Vanderbilt, E., & Rochon, A. (2004). A test of the integration of the response styles and social support theories of depression in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 653–674. doi: 10.1521/jscp.23.5.653.50752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adrian, M., Zeman, J., & Veits, G. (2011). Methodological implications of the affect revolution: A 35-year review of emotion regulation assessment in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110(2), 171–197. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.03.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed, S. P., Bittencourt-Hewitt, A., & Sebastian, C. L. (2015). Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 11–25. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.07.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aldao, A. (2013). The future of emotion regulation research: Capturing context. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(2), 155–172. doi: 10.1177/1745691612459518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 974–983. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aristotle. (1941). The basic works of Aristotle, R. McKeon (Ed.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  12. Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and Personality. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  13. *Auerbach, R. P., Kertz, S., & Gardiner, C. K. (2012). Predicting adolescent risky behavior engagement: The role of cognitive vulnerability and anxiety. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 5(3), 300–315. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2012.5.3.300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Augustine, A. A., & Hemenover, S. H. (2009). On the relative effectiveness of affect regulation strategies: A meta-analysis. Cognition & Emotion, 23(6), 1181–1220. doi: 10.1080/02699930802396556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker-Weidman, E. G., Jacobs, R. H., Reinecke, M. A., Silva, S. G., & March, J. S. (2010). Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(1), 11–18. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.08.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2011). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(3), 483–524. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Begg, C. B., & Mazumdar, M. (1994). Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics, 50(4), 1088–1101. doi: 10.2307/2533446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. *Betts, J., Gullone, E., & Allen, J. S. (2009). An examination of emotion regulation, temperament, and parenting style as potential predictors of adolescent depression risk status : A correlational study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 473–485. doi: 10.1348/0261S1008X314900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bittner, A., Egger, H. L., Erkanli, A., Jane Costello, E., Foley, D. L., & Angold, A. (2007). What do childhood anxiety disorders predict? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 48(12), 1174–1183. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01812.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blakemore, S. -J., & Robbins, T. W. (2012). Decision-making in the adolescent brain. Nature Neuroscience, 15(9), 1184–1191. doi: 10.1038/nn.3177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. R. (2005). Comprehensive Meta Analysis [Computer Software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.Google Scholar
  22. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Braet, C., et al. (2014). Emotion regulation in children with emotional problems. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38(5), 493–504. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9616-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., Katz, A. R., & Le Brocque, R. M. (2002). Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1075–1085. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.70.5.1075*.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. *Brenning, K. M., & Braet, C. (2013). The emotion regulation model of attachment: An emotion-specific approach. Personal Relationships, 20(1), 107–123. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6811.2012.01399.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buckholdt, K. E., Parra, G. R., & Jobe-Shields, L. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation through parental invalidation of emotions: Implications for adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(2), 324–332. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9768-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burnett Heyes, S., Lau, J. Y. F., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology across child and adolescent development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 119–133. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.02.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. *Burwell, R. A., & Shirk, S. R. (2007). Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: Associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 56–65. doi: 10.1080/15374410709336568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carthy, T., Horesh, N., Apter, A., Edge, M. D., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation in anxious children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(5), 384–393. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Casey, B. J., Duhoux, S., & Cohen, M. M. (2010). Adolescence: What do transmission, transition, and translation have to do with it? Neuron, 67(5), 749–760. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.033.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Casey, B. J., Jones, R. M., & Hare, T. A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 111–126. doi: 10.1196/annals.1440.010.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 1, 155–159. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. *Connell, A. M., Patton, E., Klostermann, S., & Hughes-Scalise, A. (2013). Attention bias in youth: Associations with youth and mother’s depressive symptoms moderated by emotion regulation and affective dynamics during family interactions. Cognition & Emotion, 27(8), 1522–1534. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.803459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Copeland, W., Shanahan, L., Costello, E., & Angold, A. (2009). Childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders as predictors of young adult disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(7), 764–772. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crone, E. A., & Dahl, R. E. (2012). Understanding adolescence as a period of social—Affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 636–650. doi: 10.1038/nrn3313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. D’Zurilla, T. J., Nezu, A. M., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2004). Social problem solving: Theory and assessment. In E. C. Chang, T. J. D’Zurilla, L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Social problem solving: Theory, research, and training (pp. 11–27). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/10805-001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. de Veld, D. M. J., Riksen-Walraven, J. M., & de Weerth, C. (2012). The relation between emotion regulation strategies and physiological stress responses in middle childhood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 1309–1319. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.01.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. *Dumont, M., & Provost, M. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343–363. doi: 10.1023/A:1021637011732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dumontheil, I. (2014). Development of abstract thinking during childhood and adolescence: The role of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 57–76. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2014.07.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56(2), 455–463. doi: 10.1111/j.0006-341x.2000.00455.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. *Eastabrook, J. M., Flynn, J. J., & Hollenstein, T. (2014). Internalizing symptoms in female adolescents: Associations with emotional awareness and emotion regulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23(3), 487–496. doi: 10.1007/s10826-012-9705-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(3), 192–205. doi: 10.1680/ijct.2008.1.3.192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 495–525. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131208.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. *Erdur-Baker, O. (2009). Peer victimization, rumination, and problem solving as risk contributors to adolescents’ depressive symptoms. The Journal of Psychology, 143(1), 78–90. doi: 10.3200/JRLP.143.1.78-90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Ridder, E. M., & Beautrais, A. L. (2005). Subthreshold depression in adolescence and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(1), 66–72. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.1.66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (2002). Mental health, educational, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(3), 225–231. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.3.225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. *Frye, A. A., & Goodman, S. H. (2000). Which social problem-solving components buffer depression in adolescent girls? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 637–650. doi: 10.1023/A:1005583210589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gaskell, S. L., Wells, A., & Calam, R. (2001). An experimental investigation of thought suppression and anxiety in children. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(1), 45–56. doi: 10.1348/014466501163472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert, K. E. (2012). The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 467–481. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.05.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54. doi: 10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation : An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gross, J. J. (2013). Emotion regulation: Taking stock and moving forward. Emotion, 13(3), 359–365. doi: 10.1037/a0032135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gross, J. J., Sheppes, G., & Urry, H. L. (2011). Cognition and emotion lecture at the 2010 SPSP emotion preconference. Cognition & Emotion, 25(5), 765–781. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2011.555753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Han, Z. R., & Shaffer, A. (2013). The relation of parental emotion dysregulation to children’s psychopathology symptoms: The moderating role of child emotion dysregulation. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), 591–601. doi: 10.1007/s10578-012-0353-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. *Hankin, B. L. (2008). Rumination and depression in adolescence: Investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(4), 701–713. doi: 10.1080/15374410802359627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayes, S. C., & Lillis, J. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy. In G. R. VandenBos, E. Meidenbauer, J. Frank-McNeil (Eds.), Psychotherapy theories and techniques: A reader (pp. 3–8). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/14295-001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders : A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152–1168. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hedges, L. V., & Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 486–504. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (Eds.) (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Version 5). The Cochrane Collaboration. Retrieved from http://www.handbook.cochrane.org.
  62. Hilt, L. M., & Pollak, S. D. (2012). Getting out of rumination: Comparison of three brief interventions in a sample of youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(7), 1157–1165. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9638-3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  65. Jazaieri, H., Urry, H. L., & Gross, J. J. (2013). Affective disturbance and psychopathology: An emotion regulation perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 4(5), 584–599. doi: 10.5127/jep.030312.Google Scholar
  66. *Jose, P. E., Wilkins, H., & Spendelow, J. S. (2012). Does social anxiety predict rumination and co-rumination among adolescents? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(1), 86–91. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.632346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. *Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., & Cook, W. (2006). Rumination in adolescents at risk for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96(1), 39–47. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.05.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lane, R. D., Quinlan, D. M., Schwartz, G. E., Walker, P. A., & Zeitlin, S. B. (1990). The levels of emotional awareness scale: A cognitive-developmental measure of emotion. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1&2), 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. *Lanteigne, D. M., Flynn, J. J., Eastabrook, J. M., & Hollenstein, T. (2014). Discordant patterns among emotional experience, arousal, and expression in adolescence: Relations with emotion regulation and internalizing problems. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 46(1), 29–39. doi: 10.1037/a0029968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. *Larsen, J. K., et al. (2012). Social coping by masking? Parental support and peer victimization as mediators of the relationship between depressive symptoms and expressive suppression in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(12), 1628–1642. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9782-7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  72. Lee, B. F. S., Heimer, H., Giedd, N., Lein, E. S., Šestan, N., Weinberger, D. R., & Casey, B. J. (2014). Adolescent mental health-opportunity and obligation. Science, 346(6209), 547–549. doi: 10.1126/science.1260497.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. *Lougheed, J. P., & Hollenstein, T. (2012). A limited repertoire of emotion regulation strategies is associated with internalizing problems in adolescence. Social Development, 21(4), 704–721. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2012.00663.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. *Marcotte, D., Alain, M., & Gosselin, M. -J. (1999). Gender differences in adolescent depression : Gender-typed characteristics or problem-solving skills deficits ? Sex Roles, 41(1), 31–48. doi: 10.1023/A:1018833607815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 544–554. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.003.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(3), 186–193. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.12.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G., The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10), 1006–1012. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mowrer, O. H. (1947). On the dual nature of learning: A re-interpretation of “conditioning” and “problem-solving”. Harvard Educational Review, 17, 102–148.Google Scholar
  80. *Muris, P., Fokke, M., & Kwik, D. (2009). The ruminative response style in adolescents: An examination of its specific link to symptoms of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33(1), 21–32. doi: 10.1007/s10608-007-9120-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. *Muris, P., Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., & Boomsma, P. (2004). Rumination and worry in nonclinical adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 539–554. doi: 10.1023/B:COTR.0000045563.66060.3e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. *Neumann, A., van Lier, P. A. C., Gratz, K. L., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Assessment, 17(1), 138–149. doi: 10.1177/1073191109349579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. *Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 198–207. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. *Orue, I., Calvete, E., & Padilla, P. (2014). Brooding rumination as a mediator in the relation between early maladaptive schemas and symptoms of depression and social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 37(8), 1281–1291. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.09.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Orwin, R. G. (1983). A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Statistics, 8(2), 157–159. doi: 10.2307/1164923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. *Özdemir, Y., Kuzucu, Y., & Koruklu, N. (2013). Social problem solving and aggression: The role of depression. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 23(1), 72–81. doi: 10.1017/jgc.2013.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. *Papadakis, A., Prince, R. P., Jones, N. P., & Strauman, T. J. (2006). Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 815–829. doi: 10.1017/S0954579406060408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. *Park, I. J. K., Kim, P. Y., Cheung, R. Y. M., & Kim, M. (2010). The role of culture, family processes, and anger regulation in Korean American adolescents’ adjustment problems. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(2), 258–266. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01029.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947–957. doi: 10.1038/nrn2513.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Penza-Clyve, S., & Zeman, J. (2002). Initial validation of the emotion expression scale for children (EESC). Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31(4), 540–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56(3), 345–365. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Riediger, M., & Klipker, K. (2014). Emotion regulation in adolescence. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation. (2nd ed., pp. 187–202). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  94. Rood, L., Roelofs, J., Bögels, S. M., & Arntz, A. (2012). The effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, acceptance, and distancing when thinking about a stressful event on affect states in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(1), 73–84. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9544-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rood, L., Roelofs, J., Bögels, S. M., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schouten, E. (2009). The influence of emotion-focused rumination and distraction on depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(7), 607–616. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.07.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638–641. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 59–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Publication bias as a threat to the validity of meta-analytic results. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 4(1), 61–81. doi: 10.1007/s11292-007-9046-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. *Ruijten, T., Roelofs, J., & Rood, L. (2011). The mediating role of rumination in the relation between quality of attachment relations and depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(4), 452–459. doi: 10.1007/s10826-010-9412-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Samson, A. C., Hardan, A. Y., Podell, R. W., Phillips, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 8, 9–18. doi: 10.1002/aur.1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Scherer, K. R. (1984). On the nature and function of emotions: A component process approach. In K. R. Scherer, P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 293–317). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  102. *Shapero, B. G., Hamilton, J. L., Liu, R. T., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2013). Internalizing symptoms and rumination: The prospective prediction of familial and peer emotional victimization experiences during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1067–1076. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.08.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Singer, A. R., & Dobson, K. S. (2007). An experimental investigation of the cognitive vulnerability to depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 563–575. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.05.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. *Siu, A. M. H., & Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Social problem solving as a predictor of well-being in adolescents and young adults. Social Indicators Research, 95(3), 393–406. doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9527-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. *Skitch, S. A., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2008). Rumination in response to stress as a common vulnerability factor to depression and substance misuse in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(7), 1029–1045. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9233-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Somerville, L. H., & Casey, B. J. (2010). Developmental neurobiology of cognitive control and motivational systems. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20(2), 236–241. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2010.01.006.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spear, L. P. (2000). The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 417–463. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00014-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Spear, L. P. (2009). Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 87–97. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000066.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stegge, H., & Meerum Terwogt, M. (2007). Awareness and regulation of emotion in typical and atypical development. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 269–286). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  110. Steinberg, L., & Avenevoli, S. (2000). The role of context in the development of psychopathology: A conceptual framework and some speculative propositions. Child Development, 71(1), 66–74. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. Lancet, 379(9820), 1056–1067. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60871-4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thompson, R. A., & Goodman, M. (2010). Development of emotion regulation: More than meets the eye. In A. M. Kring, D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment (pp. 38–58). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  113. *van der Veek, S. M. C., Nobel, R. A., & Derkx, H. H. F. (2012). The relationship between emotion awareness and somatic complaints in children and adolescents: Investigating the mediating role of anxiety and depression. Psychology & Health, 27(11), 1359–1374. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2012.685738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. *Verstraeten, K., Vasey, M. W., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Temperament and risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(3), 349–361. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9293-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. *Weinberg, A., & Klonsky, E. D. (2009). Measurement of emotion dysregulation in adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 21(4), 616–621. doi: 10.1037/a0016669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Werner, K., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation and psychopathology. A conceptual framework. In A. M. Kring, D. M. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment (pp. 13–37). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  117. *Winkeljohn Black, S., & Pössel, P. (2013). The combined effects of self-referent information processing and ruminative responses on adolescent depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(8), 1145–1154. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9827-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. *Winkeljohn Black, S., & Pössel, P. (2015). Integrating Beck’s cognitive model and the response style theory in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(1), 195–210. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0087-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wolitzky-Taylor, K., et al. (2014). Experiencing core symptoms of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders in late adolescence predicts disorder onset in early adulthood. Depression and Anxiety, 31(3), 207–213. doi: 10.1002/da.22250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zeman, J., Klimes-Dougan, B., Cassano, M., & Adrian, M. (2007). Measurement issues in emotion research with children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 377–401. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00098.x.Google Scholar
  121. *Zhao, Y., & Zhao, G. (2015). Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: Examining the mediation effects of school connectedness in Chinese late adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 40, 14–23. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.12.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Skinner, E. A. (2011). Review: The development of coping across childhood and adolescence: An integrative review and critique of research. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(1), 1–17. doi: 10.1177/0165025410384923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanna Özlem Schäfer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eva Naumann
    • 2
  • Emily Alexandra Holmes
    • 3
    • 4
  • Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
    • 1
  • Andrea Christiane Samson
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyUniversity of Freiburg79106 FreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyUniversity of Tübingen72076 TübingenGermany
  3. 3.Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Science UnitCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  5. 5.Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Campus BiotechUniversity of Geneva1202 GenevaSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations