Correlates of Childhood vs. Adolescence Internalizing Symptomatology from Infancy to Young Adulthood
- 662 Downloads
In light of its associations with child and adolescent health and well-being, there remains a need to better understand the etiological underpinnings and developmental course of internalizing symptomatology in children and adolescents. This study leveraged intensive longitudinal data (N = 959; 49.6 % females) to test the hypothesis that internalizing symptoms in childhood may be driven more strongly by family experiences whereas internalizing symptoms in adolescence may derive more uniquely from familial loading for affective disorders (i.e., maternal depression). We evaluated the relative contributions of (a) family experiences (b) maternal depression, and (c) peer influences in testing this hypothesis. The results indicated that family predictors were more strongly correlated with childhood (relative to adolescent) internalizing symptoms. In contrast to previous findings, maternal depression also exhibited stronger associations with childhood internalizing symptoms. Although often overlooked in theories concerning potential differential origins of childhood vs. adolescent internalizing symptomatology, peer experiences explained unique variation in both childhood and adolescent internalizing problems.
KeywordsEnvironment Internalizing symptomatology Peer victimization Psychopathology Puberty
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to John D. Haltigan Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 6225, 6th Floor, 80 Workman Way, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6J 1H4.
JDH contributed to the conceptualization of the study, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript; GIR contributed to the conceptualization of the study, interpretation of the data, and drafting of the manuscript; EC and CBLF also assisted in interpretation of the analyses and in the drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This project was supported by NIH Grants HD025447 and HD054822 (Cathryn Booth-LaForce, PI), as well as by a cooperative agreement (U10-HD25420) with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation (2006-00365). The contents of this manuscript are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development or the Charles Steward Mott Foundation. We are grateful to the NICHD SECCYD participants for their time.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Approved by IRB review at the University of California, Irvine, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Washington.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1986). Manual for the teacher report form and teacher version of the child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- Belsky, J., Steinberg, L. D., Houts, R. M., Friedman, S. L., DeHart, G., Cauffman, E., Roisman, G. I., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., & Susman, E., The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2007a). Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Development, 4, 1302–1321. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01067.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bowes, L., Joinson, C., Wolke, D., & Lewis, G. (2015). Peer vicitmisation during adolescence and its impact on depression in early adulthood: Prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal, 350, h2469. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h2469.
- Criss, M. M., Shaw, D. S., Moilanen, K. L., Hitchings, J. E., & Ingoldsby, E. M. (2009). Family, neighborhood, and peer characteristics as predictors of child adjustment: A longitudinal analysis of additive and mediation models. Social Development, 18, 511–535. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00520.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Graber, J. A., & Sontag, L. M. (2009). Internalizing problems during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. 3rd edn. (pp. 642–682). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Haltigan, J. D., Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). The predictive significance of early caregiving experiences for symptoms of psychopathology through midadolescence: Enduring or transient effects? Development and Psychopathology, 25, 209–221. doi: 10.1017/S0954579412000260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harrington, R., Rutter, M., Weissman, M., Fudge, H., Groothes, C., Bredenkamp, D., Pickles, A., Rende, R., & Wickramaratne, P. (1997). Psychiatric disorders in the relatives of depressed probands I. Comparison of prepubertal, adolescent and early adult onset cases. Journal of Affective Disorders, 42, 9–22. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(96)00091-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herman Giddens, M., & Bourdony, C. (1995). Assessment of sexual maturity strategies in girls. Chicago: American Academy of Pediatrics.Google Scholar
- Kretschmer, T., Barker, E. D., Dijkstra, J. K., Oldehinkel, A. J., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Multifinality of peer victimization: maladjustment patterns and transitions from early to mid-adolescence. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 4, 1169–1179. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0667-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2006). Mplus user’s guide. 3rd edn. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (Eds.). (2005). Child care and child development. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- O’Connor, T., Neiderhiser, J., Reiss, D., Hetherington, E., & Plomin, R. (1998a). Genetic contributions to continuity, change, and co-occurrence of antisocial and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 323–336. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Revelle, W. (2015). psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=psychVersion=1.5.8.Google Scholar
- Roisman, G. I., Monahan, K. C., Campbell, S. B., Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E., The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2010). Is adolescence-onset antisocial behavior developmentally normative? Development and Psychopathology, 22, 295–311. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000076.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santor, D. A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2000). The centre for epidemiologic studies depression scale. Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2, 58–60.Google Scholar
- Scourfield, J., Rice, F., Thapar, A., Harold, G. T., Martin, N., & McGuffin, P. (2003). Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: Changing aetiological influences with development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 968–976. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shanahan, L., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., Kelleher, R., & Suffness, R. (2014). Trajectories of internalizing symptoms across childhood: The roles of biological self-regulation and maternal psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 1353–1368. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001072.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Susman, E. J., Houts, R. M., Steinberg, L., Belsky, J., Cauffman, E., DeHart, G., Friedman, S. L., Roisman, G. I., & Halpern-Felsher, B. L., for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2010). Longitudinal development of secondary sexual characteristics in girls and boys between ages 9 ½ and 15 ½ years. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 166–173. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tanner, J. M. (1962). Growth at adolescence. 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). The development of empathy, guilt, and internalizing of distress: Implications for gender differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. In R. Davidson (Ed.), Wisconsin symposium on emotion: Vol 1. Anxiety, depression, and emotion (pp. 222–265). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar