Parental Involvement Across Middle and High School: Exploring Contributions of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics
- 1.9k Downloads
Parental involvement in education is crucial during adolescence when grades decline and youth autonomy increases. This study examined parental involvement trajectories from 7th to 11th grade and explored whether individual and neighborhood characteristics affected this change. European American and African American (66 %) families participated (N = 1377, primary caregivers: 92 % female; adolescents: 51 % male, initial age range: 11–14). Results showed that, over time, parents reduced home- and school-based involvement but consistently engaged in academic socialization. Individual and neighborhood characteristics contributed differentially to parental involvement trajectories. These findings suggest that parental investment in adolescents’ education persists during this critical developmental period, but individual and contextual differences impact the use of these strategies, which has implications for family-school partnerships and interventions.
KeywordsHome-based involvement School-based involvement Academic socialization Race Socioeconomic status Gender Neighborhood structure Social dynamics
The authors’ work for this manuscript was not supported by any external funding. The MADICS study was supported by multiple sources. For more information on these data, please see Jacquelynne S. Eccles 1997, “MADICS Study of Adolescent Development in Multiple Contexts 1991–1998”, http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/01066 UNF:5:uuV+GIHq+xtra75iHCPSPw==Murray Research Archive [Distributor] V2 [Version].
SB conceived of the study, participated in its design, conducted the statistical analysis, interpreted the findings, and drafted the manuscript. DPW conceived of the study, participated in its design, assisted with the statistical analysis and interpretation of the findings, and helped to draft and revise the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Catsambis, S., & Garland, J. E. (1997). Parental involvement in students’ education during middle and high school (Report No. 18). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Parent-adolescent relationships and influences. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 331–362). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Comer, J. P. (1995). School power: Implications of and intervention project. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Eccles, J. S. (1997). MADICS study of adolescent development in multiple contexts, 1991–1998. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/01066. UNF:5:uuV+GIHq+xtra75iHCPSPw==Murray Research Archive [Distributor] V2 [Version].
- Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? (pp. 3–34). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (1992). School and family partnerships. In M. Aiken (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (6th ed., pp. 1139–1151). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Garcia Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & García, H. V. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891–1914. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01834.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Green, C. L., Walker, J. M. T., Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2007). Parents’ motivations for involvement in children’s education: An empirical test of a theoretical model of parental involvement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 532–544. doi: 10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hill, N. E., Castellino, D. R., Lansford, J. E., Nowlin, P., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2004). Parent academic involvement as related to school behavior, achievement, and aspirations: Demographic variations across adolescence. Child Development, 75(5), 1491–1509. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00753.x.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hill, N. E., & Chao, R. K. (2009). Families, schools, and the adolescent: Connecting research, policy, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Hill, N. E., Tyson, D. F., & Bromell, L. (2009). Parental Involvement in middle school: Developmentally appropriate strategies across SES and ethnicity. In N. E. Hill & R. K. Chao (Eds.), Families, schools, and the adolescent: Connecting research, policy, and practice (pp. 53–72). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Izzo, C. V., Weissberg, R. P., Kasprow, W. J., & Fendrich, M. (1999). A longitudinal assessment of teacher perceptions of parent involvement in children’s education and school performance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 817–839. doi: 10.1023/A:1022262625984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kena, G., Aud, S., Johnson, F., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., & Kristapovich, P. (2014). The condition of education 2014 (NCES 2014-083). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Lareau, A. (1996). Assessing parent involvement in schooling: A critical analysis. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? (pp. 57–64). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Le, H., Ceballo, R., Chao, R., Hill, N. E., Murry, V. M., & Pinderhughes, E. E. (2008). Excavating culture: Disentangling ethnic differences from contextual influences in parenting. Applied Developmental Science, 12(4), 163–175. doi: 10.1080/10888690802387880.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.309
- Pinderhughes, E. E., Nix, R., Foster, E. M., & Jones, D. (2001). Parenting in context: Impact of neighborhood poverty, residential stability, public services, social networks, and danger on parental behaviors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(4), 941–953. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00941.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Putnam, R. D. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. American Prospect, 13, 35–42.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas: A study of rates of delinquents in relation to differential characteristics of local communities in American cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Simmons, R. G., & Blyth, D. A. (1987). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Hawthorn, NY: Aldine de Gruyler.Google Scholar
- Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., & Brody, G. H. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting, and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community- and family-level processes. Criminology, 43(4), 989–1029. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2005.00031.x.
- U.S. Census Bureau. (1990a). Table 44—Average household income in 1989 dollars. Social Explorer DataSet. Retrieved from http://www.socialexplorer.com/tables/C1990/R10978697.
- U.S. Census Bureau. (1990b). Table 45—Average household income by race in 1989 dollars. Social Explorer DataSet. Retrieved from http://www.socialexplorer.com/tables/C1990/R10978698.
- Wang, M., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Adolescent behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement trajectories in school and their differential relations to educational success. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 31–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2011.00753.x.
- West, B. T., Welch, K. B., & Galecki, A. T. (2007). Linear mixed models: A practical guide using statistical software. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar