Developmental Trajectories of Prejudice and Tolerance Toward Immigrants from Early to Late Adolescence
- 789 Downloads
Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents’ relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous–unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents’ tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M age = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2 % girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous–unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.
KeywordsPrejudice Tolerance Intergroup friendships Callous–unemotional traits
Support for this research was provided to Margaret Kerr and Håkan Stattin by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS), and Örebro University, and to Maarten van Zalk by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and by Utrecht University.
MvZ conceived of the study, participated in its design, performed the statistical analysis, and coordinated and drafted the manuscript; MR helped design the study and draft the early version of the manuscript. MR died prior to the completion of this article. We gratefully acknowledge her contributions to the research.
- Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
- Andershed, H., Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Levander, S. (2002b). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: A new assessment tool. In E. Blaauw & L. Sheridan (Eds.), Psychopaths: Current international perspectives. The Hague: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Bayram-Özdemir, S., & Stattin, H. (2013). Why and when is ethnic harassment a risk for immigrant adolescents’ school adjustment? Understanding the processes and conditions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 10. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0038-y.
- Enesco, I., Guerrero, S., Callejas, C., & Solbes, I. (2008). Intergroup attitudes and reasoning about social exclusion in majority and minority children in Spain. In S. R. Levy & M. Killen (Eds.), Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 105–125). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Eysenck, H. J. (1944). General social attitudes. Journal of Social Attitudes, 19, 207–227.Google Scholar
- Hare, R. D. (1991). The hare psychopathy checklist—revised: Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Herpers, P. M., Scheepers, F. E., Bons, D. A., Buitelaar, J. K., & Rommelse, N. J. (2014). The cognitive and neural correlates of psychopathy and especially callous–unemotional traits in youths: A systematic review of the evidence. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 245–273. doi: 10.1017/S0954579413000527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hodson, G., & Hewstone, M. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in intergroup contact. New York, NY: Psychology press.Google Scholar
- Kimonis, E. R., Frick, P. J., Boris, N. W., Smyke, A. T., Cornell, A. H., Farrell, J. M., et al. (2006). Callous–unemotional features, behavioral inhibition, and parenting: Independent predictors of aggression in a high-risk preschool sample. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 745–756. doi: 10.1007/s10826-006-9047-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Levy, S. R., & Killen, M. (2008). Intergroup attitudes and relations in childhood through adulthood (pp. 4–25). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Little, T. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Little, T., Preacher, K. J., Selig, J. P., & Card, N. A. (2007). New developments in latent variable panel analyses of longitudinal data. Journal of International Development, 31, 357–365.Google Scholar
- Marsh, A. A., Finger, E. C., Mitchell, D. G. V., Reid, M. E., Sims, C., & Kosson, D. S. (2008). Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents with callous unemotional traits and disruptive behavior disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 712–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus user’s guide, 7th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Bagwell, C. L. (1999). Knowing the sounds: Friendship as a developmental context. In W. A. Collins & B. Laursen (Eds.), Relationships as developmental contexts. Mahwah, NJ: US Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 65–85.Google Scholar
- Pittinsky, T. L., Rosenthal, S. A., & Montoya, R. M. (2011). Measuring positive attitudes toward outgroups: Development and validation of the Allophilia Scale. In T. L. Pittinsky, S. A. Rosenthal, & R. M. Montoya (Eds.), Moving beyond prejudice reduction: Pathways to positive intergroup relations (pp. 41–60). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosso, I. M., Young, A. D., Femia, L. A., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. A. (2004). Cognitive and emotional components of frontal lobe functioning in childhood and adolescence. In R. E. Dahl & L. P. Spear (Eds.), Adolescent brain development: Vulnerabilities and opportunities (pp. 355–362). New York, NY: Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
- Smith, E. E., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2007). Cognitive psychology: Mind and brain. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) (2010). Retrieved from http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/sv/ssd/START__BE__BE0101__BE0101E/UtrikesFoddaR/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=6bf94863-cc3b-4df5-bd2b-711fcd80ae78.
- Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- Thagard, P. (2011). Critical thinking and informal logic: Neuropsychological perspectives. Informal logic, 51, 152–170.Google Scholar
- Van Zalk, M., Van Zalk, N., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2013). Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: Cross-influence processes within friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(4), 627–639.Google Scholar