Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 43, Issue 11, pp 1914–1933 | Cite as

Comparing Patterns and Predictors of Immigrant Offending Among a Sample of Adjudicated Youth

  • Bianca E. Bersani
  • Thomas A. Loughran
  • Alex R. Piquero
Empirical Research

Abstract

Research on immigration and crime has only recently started to consider potential heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns of immigrant offending. Guided by segmented assimilation and life course criminology frameworks, this article advances prior research on the immigration-crime nexus in three ways: using a large sample of high-risk adjudicated youth containing first and second generation immigrants; examining longitudinal trajectories of official and self-reported offending; and merging segmented assimilation and life course theories to distinguish between offending patterns. Data come from the Pathways to Desistance study containing detailed offending and socio-demographic background information on 1,354 adolescents (13.6 % female; n = 1,061 native-born; n = 210 second generation immigrants; n = 83 first generation immigrants) as they transition to young adulthood (aged 14–17 at baseline). Over 84 months we observe whether patterns of offending, and the correlates that may distinguish them, operate differently across immigrant generations. Collectively, this study offers the first investigation of whether immigrants, conditioned on being adjudicated, are characterized by persistent offending. Results show that first generation immigrants are less likely to be involved in serious offending and to evidence persistence in offending, and appear to be on a path toward desistance much more quickly than their peers. Further, assimilation and neighborhood disadvantage operate in unique ways across generational status and relate to different offending styles. The findings show that the risk for persistent offending is greatest among those with high levels of assimilation who reside in disadvantaged contexts, particularly among the second generation youth in the sample.

Keywords

Immigration Offending Longitudinal Ethnic identity Assimilation 

References

  1. Acevedo-Garcia, D., Pan, J., Jun, H.-J., Osypuk, T. L., & Emmons, K. M. (2005). The effect of immigrant generation on smoking. Social Science and Medicine, 61(6), 1223–1242. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.01.027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bersani, B. E. (2012). An Examination of first and second generation immigrant offending trajectories. Justice Quarterly, 1–29, doi:10.1080/07418825.2012.659200.
  4. Bersani, B. E. (2013). A game of catch-up? The offending experience of second generation immigrants. Crime & Delinquency, (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  5. Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., & Visher, C. A. (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals”. National academy of sciences panel on research on criminal careers (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bucerius, S. M. (2011). Immigrants and crime. In M. Tonry (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of crime and criminal justice (pp. 385–419). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bui, H. N. (2009). Parent—child conflicts, school troubles, and differences in delinquency across immigration generations. Crime & Delinquency, 55(3), 412–441. doi:10.1177/0011128707306122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butcher, K. F., & Piehl, A. M. (1998). Cross-city evidence on the relationship between immigration and crime. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(3), 457–493. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6688(199822)17:3<457:aid-pam4>3.0.co;2-f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cernkovich, S. A., Giordano, P. C., & Pugh, M. D. (1985). Chronic offenders: The missing cases in self-report delinquency research. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76(3), 705–732. doi:10.2307/1143519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chavez, L. R. (2008). The Latino threat: Constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Crutchfield, R. D., Matsueda, R. L., & Drakulich, K. (2006). Race, labor markets, and neighborhood violence. In R. D. Peterson, L. J. Krivo, & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime (pp. 199–220). New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cuéllar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17(3), 275–304. doi:10.1177/07399863950173001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cuéllar, I., Nyberg, B., Maldonado, R. E., & Roberts, R. E. (1997). Ethnic identity and acculturation in a young adult Mexican-origin population. Journal of Community Psychology, 25(6), 535–549. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6629(199711)25:6<535:aid-jcop4>3.0.co;2-o.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Decker, S., Wright, R., & Logie, R. (1993). Perceptual deterrence among active residential burglars: A research note. Criminology, 31(1), 135–147. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01125.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dinovitzer, R., Hagan, J., & Levi, R. (2009). Immigration and youthful illegalities in a global edge city. Social Forces, 88(1), 337–372. doi:10.1353/sof.0.0229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DiPietro, S. M., & Bursik, R. J. (2012). Studies of the new immigration. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 641(1), 247–267. doi:10.1177/0002716211431687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiPietro, S. M., & McGloin, J. M. (2012). Differential susceptibility? Immigrant youth and peer influence. Criminology, 50(3), 711–742. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00273.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elder, G. H. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69(1), 1–12. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06128.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elder, G. H., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–19). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Morse, B. (1986). Self-reported violent offending: A descriptive analysis of juvenile violent offenders and their offending careers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(4), 472–514. doi:10.1177/088626086001004006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fenelon, A. (2013). Revisiting the Hispanic mortality advantage in the United States: The role of smoking. Social Science and Medicine, 82, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.12.028.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Fortuny, K., & Chaudry, A. (2011). Children of immigrants: Growing national and state diversity. Brief 1. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  23. Georgiades, K., Boyle, M., & Fife, K. (2013). Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent students: The role of immigrant, racial/ethnic congruence and belongingness in schools. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(9), 1473–1492. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9868-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gordon-Larsen, P., Harris, K. M., Ward, D. S., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Acculturation and overweight-related behaviors among Hispanic immigrants to the US: The national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Social Science and Medicine, 57(11), 2023–2034. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00072-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gottfredson, M. R. (2004). Crime, immigration, and public policy. Report prepared for the Merage Foundation for the American Dream.Google Scholar
  26. Hagan, J. (1997). Crime and capitalization: Toward a developmental theory of street crime in America. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency: Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 7). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Hagan, J., Levi, R., & Dinovitzer, R. (2008). The symbolic violence of the crime-immigration nexus: Migrant mythologies in the Americas. Criminology & Public Policy, 7(1), 95–112. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2008.00493.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hagan, J., & Palloni, A. (1999). Immigration and crime in the United States. In J. Smith & B. Edmonston (Eds.), The immigration debate: Studies on the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  29. Haller, W., Portes, A., & Lynch, S. M. (2011). Dreams fulfilled, dreams shattered: Determinants of segmented assimilation in the second generation. Social Forces, 89(3), 733–762. doi:10.1353/sof.2011.0003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harker, K. (2001). Immigrant generation, assimilation, and adolescent psychological well-being. Social Forces, 79(3), 969–1004. doi:10.1353/sof.2001.0010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harris, K. M. (1999). The health status and risk behaviors of adolescents in immigrant families. In D. J. Hernandez (Ed.), Children of immigrants: Health, adjustment, and public assistance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  32. Harris, C. T., & Feldmeyer, B. (2013). Latino immigration and White, Black, and Latino violent crime: A comparison of traditional and non-traditional immigrant destinations. Social Science Research, 42(1), 202–216. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.08.014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hindelang, M. J., Hirschi, T., & Weis, J. G. (1979). Correlates of delinquency: The illusion of discrepancy between self-report and official measures. American Sociological Review, 44(6), 995–1014. doi:10.2307/2094722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hirschman, C. (2001). The educational enrollment of immigrant youth: A test of the segmented-assimilation hypothesis. Demography, 38(3), 317–336. doi:10.1353/dem.2001.0028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Horowitz, C. F. (2001). An examination of US immigration policy and serious crime. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Huizinga, D., Esbensen, F.-A., & Weiher, A. W. (1991). Are there multiple paths to delinquency? The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82(1), 83–118. doi:10.2307/1143790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Immigration Commission. (1911). Report of the immigration commission. U.S. Congress, Senate, 61st, (Congress. S. Doc. 750, Vol. 36). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  38. Jennings, W. G., Zgoba, K. M., Piquero, A. R., & Reingle, J. M. (2013). Offending trajectories among native-born and foreign-born hispanics to late middle age. Sociological Inquiry. doi:10.1111/soin.12017.
  39. Kirk, D. S. (2006). Examining the divergence across self-report and official data sources on inferences about the adolescent life-course of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22(2), 107–129. doi:10.1007/s10940-006-9004-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knight, G. P., Basilio, C. D., Cham, H., Gonzales, N. A., Liu, Y., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2013). Trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–16, doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9983-8.
  41. Knight, G. P., Losoya, S. H., Cho, Y. I., Chassin, L., Williams, J. L., & Cota-Robles, S. (2012). Ethnic identity and offending trajectories among Mexican American juvenile offenders: Gang membership and psychosocial maturity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(4), 782–796. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00819.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Landale, N. S., & Oropesa, R. S. (2007). Hispanic families: Stability and change. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 381–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2001). Understanding desistance from crime. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 28, pp. 1–69). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lee, M. T., & Martinez, R., Jr. (2009). Immigration reduces crime: An emerging scholarly consensus. In W. F. Mcdonald (Ed.), Immigration, crime and justice. Sociology of crime, law and deviance, Vol. 13 (pp. 3–16). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  46. Lee, J. M., Steinberg, L., Piquero, A. R., & Knight, G. P. (2011). Identity-linked perceptions of the police among African American juvenile offenders: A developmental perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(1), 23–37. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9553-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 309–337. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lopez, D. E., & Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001). Mexican Americans: A second generation at risk. In R. G. Rumbaut & A. Portes (Eds.), Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America (pp. 57–90). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  49. MacDonald, J. M., Hipp, J. R., & Gill, C. (2012). The effects of immigrant concentration on changes in neighborhood crime rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1–25, doi:10.1007/s10940-012-9176-8.
  50. MacDonald, J. M., & Sampson, R. J. (2012). The world in a city: Immigration and America’s changing social fabric. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 641, 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Piquero, A. R., Jennings, W. G., Bird, H., & Canino, G. (2009). Trajectories of delinquency among Puerto Rican children and adolescents at two sites. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(2), 144–181. doi:10.1177/0022427808330866.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Reingle, J. M., Jennings, W. G., & Prado, G. (2011). Drinking and driving among immigrant and US-born Hispanic young adults: Results from a longitudinal and nationally representative study. Addictive Behaviors, 36(4), 381–388. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.017.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Martinez, R., Jr, Stowell, J. I., & Lee, M. T. (2010). Immigration and crime in an era of transformation: A longitudinal analysis of Homicides in San Diego Neighborhoods, 1980–2000. Criminology, 48(3), 797–829. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00202.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mayer, S. E., & Jencks, C. (1989). Growing up in poor neighborhoods: How much does it matter. Science, 243(4897), 1441–1445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mears, D. P. (2001). The immigration-crime nexus: Toward an analytic framework for assessing and guiding theory, research, and policy. Sociological Perspectives, 44(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.100.4.674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moffitt, T. E. (1994). Natural histories of delinquency. In H. J. Kerner & E. Weitekamp (Eds.), Cross-national longitudinal research on human development and criminal behavior (pp. 3–64). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morenoff, J. D., & Astor, A. (2006). Immigrant assimilation and crime: Generational differences in youth violence in Chicago. In R. J. Martinez & A. J. Valenzuela (Eds.), Immigration and crime: Race, ethnicity and violence. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Mulvey, E. P., Schubert, C. A., & Chung, H. L. (2007). Service use after court involvement in a sample of serious adolescent offenders. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(4), 518–544. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2006.10.006.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Fagan, J., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., Chassin, L., et al. (2004). Theory and research on desistance from antisocial activity among serious adolescent offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 213–236. doi:10.1177/1541204004265864.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Ousey, G. C., & Kubrin, C. E. (2009). Exploring the connection between immigration and violent crime rates in US cities: 1980–2000. Social Problems, 56(3), 447–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. V. (2008). US population projections: 20052050. Social & demographic trends. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  64. Perlmann, J., & Waldinger, R. (1997). Second generation decline? Children of immigrants, past and present—a reconsideration. International Migration Review, 31(4), 893–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pew Research Center. (2013). Second-generation Americans: A portrait of the adult children of immigrants. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  66. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156–176. doi:10.1177/074355489272003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Phinney, J. S., Cantu, C. L., & Kurtz, D. A. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino, and White adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(2), 165–185. doi:10.1023/a:1024500514834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Piquero, A. R., Blumstein, A., Brame, R., Haapanen, R., Mulvey, E. P., & Nagin, D. S. (2001). Assessing the impact of exposure time and incapacitation on longitudinal trajectories of criminal offending. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(1), 54–74. doi:10.1177/0743558401161005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2007). Key issues in criminal career research: New analyses of the Cambridge study in delinquent development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Piquero, A. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Lawton, B. (2005). Race and crime: The contribution of individual, familial, and neighborhood-level risk factors to life-course-persistent offending. In D. Hawkins & K. Kempf-Leonard (Eds.), Our children, their children: Race/ethnicity and crime (pp. 202–244). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Piquero, A. R., Monahan, K. C., Glasheen, C., Schubert, C. A., & Mulvey, E. P. (2013). Does time matter? Comparing trajectory concordance and covariate association using time-based and age-based assessments. Crime & Delinquency, 59(5), 738–763. doi:10.1177/0011128712459491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Portes, A., Fernandez-Kelly, P., & Haller, W. (2009). The adaptation of the immigrant second generation in America: A theoretical overview and recent evidence. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 35(7), 1077–1104. doi:10.1080/13691830903006127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530(1), 74–96. doi:10.1177/0002716293530001006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Powell, D., Perreira, K. M., & Harris, K. M. (2010). Trajectories of delinquency from adolescence to adulthood. Youth & Society, 41(4), 475–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reingle, J. M., Jennings, W. G., & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. (2011). Generational differences in serious physical violence among Hispanic adolescents: Results from a nationally representative, longitudinal study. Race and Justice, 1(3), 277–291. doi:10.1177/2153368711409061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rumbaut, R. G. (1994). The crucible within: Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and segmented assimilation among children of immigrants. International Migration Review, 28(4), 748–794. doi:10.2307/2547157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rumbaut, R. G., & Ewing, W. A. (2007). The myth of immigrant criminality and the paradox of assimilation: Incarceration rates among native and foreign-born men. Washington, DC: Immigration Policy Center.Google Scholar
  79. Rumbaut, R. G., Gonzales, R. G., Komaie, G., Morgan, C. V., & Rosaura, T.-E. (2006). Immigration and incarceration: Patterns and predictors of imprisonment among first- and second-generation young adults. In R. Martinez Jr. & A. Valenzuela Jr. (Eds.), Immigration and crime: Race, ethnicity, and violence (pp. 64–89). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Sampson, R. J. (2008). Rethinking crime and immigration. Contexts, 7(1), 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1997). A life-course theory of cumulative disadvantage and the stability of delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency: Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 7, pp. 133–161). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  83. Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2005). Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 224–232.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105(3), 603–651. doi:10.1086/210356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., Losoya, S. H., Hecker, T., et al. (2004). Operational lessons from the pathways to desistance project. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 237–255. doi:10.1177/1541204004265875.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Sellin, T. (1938). Culture conflict and crime. New York, NY: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  87. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  88. Skogan, W. G. (2006). Police and community in Chicago: A tale of three cities. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sutherland, E. H. (1924 [1934]). Criminology. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott Co.Google Scholar
  91. Taft, D. R. (1933). Does immigration increase crime? Social Forces, 12, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tavernise, S. (2013). The health toll of immigration. New York Times.Google Scholar
  93. The health toll of immigration. (2013, May 19). New York Times.Google Scholar
  94. Thornberry, T. P. (1997). Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 7). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  95. Vazsonyi, A., Trejos-Castillo, E., & Huang, L. (2006). Are developmental processes affected by immigration? Family processes, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(5), 795–809. doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9104-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vélez, M. B. (2006). Toward an understanding of the lower rates of homicide in Latino versus Black neighborhoods: A look at Chicago. In R. D. Peterson, L. J. Krivo, & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime (pp. 91–107). New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  97. Wadsworth, T. (2010). Is immigration responsible for the crime drop? An assessment of the influence of immigration on changes in violent crime between 1990 and 2000. Social Science Quarterly, 91(2), 531–553. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00706.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang, X. I. A. (2012). Undocumented immigrants as perceived criminal threat: A test of the minority threat perspective. Criminology, 50(3), 743–776. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2012.00278.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wikström, P.-O. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Social mechanisms of community influences on crime and pathways in criminality. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 118–148). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  100. Xie, Y., & Greenman, E. (2011). The social context of assimilation: Testing implications of segmented assimilation theory. Social Science Research, 40(3), 965–984. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.01.004.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Zimring, F. E. (2010). Delinquency, opportunity, and the second generation immigrant puzzle. In R. Rosenfeld, K. Quinet, & C. A. Garcia (Eds.), Contemporary issues in criminal justice policy: policy proposals from the American society of criminology conference (pp. 247–249). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bianca E. Bersani
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Loughran
    • 2
  • Alex R. Piquero
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Criminology and Criminal JusticeUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Program in CriminologyUniversity of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA

Personalised recommendations